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Full text of "The Jewish Utopia"

JEWISH UTOPIA 



M. HIGGER 





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THE 

JEWISH UTOPIA 



BY 



MICHAEL HIGGER, Ph.D. 



The Lord Baltimore Press 
Baltimore, Md. 

1932 



>//Vi 






TO 



Copyright, 1932 

BY 

MICHAEL HIGGER 



THE HEBREW UNIVERSITY 
OF JERUSALEM 

SYMBOL OF THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



Printed by 

The Lord Baltimore Press 

Baltimore, Md., U.S.A. 



a u JL 




PREFACE 

The aim of this work is to present, in a comprehensive way, 
the traditional Jewish conception of the ideal life for indi- 
viduals, as well as for nations. The problems taken up in the 
book are discussed, not from a theological viewpoint, but 
rather from that of the prophecies of the prophets as in- 
terpreted by the rabbis. The doctrines concerning God, 
Torah, Israel, Messiah, the future world and so forth, are, 
therefore, referred to, only where they are directly related 
to the subject of an ideal life in the ideal era to come. For 
my main problem is to reconstruct an ideal social life on 
earth as pictured by the rabbis of old. 

The Tannaitic literature, the Babylonian and Palestinian 
Talmudim, and the Midrashim, were utilized as the basis of 
the work. Allusions are occasionally made to the Apocryphal 
and Pseudepigraphal literature, and to the Jewish prayer 
book. Since the purpose of the work is to reconstruct, not 
a purely prophetic, but a prophetic-rabbinic ideal life, only 
those allusions to the Bible which are quoted in the rabbinic 
sources are given. With a few minor exceptions, no attempt 
was made to allude to the Mediaeval Jewish authorities, like 
Maimonides, Nahmanides, Abravanel, and others, who dealt 
with some phases of my problem. 

It is self-evident that a debatable subject of this nature 
will invite a number of criticisms. The orthodox and reformed 
groups alike, it is expected, will disagree with many of the 
interpretations and conclusions. These groups are advised, 
however, to consult carefully all the sources given in the notes 
before they form an opinion about the conclusions herein ar- 
rived at. 



VI 



PREFACE 



For the benefit of the prospective critic and of the student 
of Jewish eschatology, it may be added that the old method 
of some authorities to differentiate between certain terms 
which designate the " future world " and the " future era ", 
respectively, was for my purpose, entirely ignored. Every 
passage was studied carefully for its contents, regardless of 
the particular expression employed by the rabbis in referring 
to the " future ". If the passages speak, for instance, of 
poverty, of large families, or, of universal peace, in the 
future, it is evident that such passages, irrespective of the 
term used for the " future ", allude, not to the future world, 
or the realm of the spirit, but rather to the ideal era on 
this earth. If, on the other hand, a statement speaks of a 
" future " when there will be no eating, no drinking and 
so forth, it is equally clear that such a statement refers to 
the world of the spirit — a subject which the present work 
does not include. 

The reader who will hastily pass judgment concerning 
the .book and label it as " radical ", is likewise reminded of 
two important facts. First, that the subject matter is Utopian 
in nature, and that established institutions of our social struc- 
ture naturally should not expect any complimentary statements 
at the hands of a Utopian author. Secondly, nearly all the 
statements and conclusions set forth in this work are rabbinic, 
and not my own — even though the style employed, namely, 
that of paraphrasing the rabbinic passages and statements, 
may suggest that I Express my own personal views. 

The Bible translation of the Jewish Publication Society was 
used for the biblical references. In a few places, parts of, 
instead of complete, verses are quoted, because they are so 
quoted in the rabbinic sources. 

All the sources are given fully in the notes at the end of 
the book. When the paraphrased rabbinic quotation con- 



PREFACE 



vu 



tains a biblical reference, the biblical source is mentioned first, 
in the notes, and the rabbinic sources follow in their regular 
chronological order. 

I wish to express my hearty thanks to Prof. Louis Ginzberg, 
Prof. Alexander Marx, Prof. Harry A, Wolfson, and to 
Rabbi Ira Eisenstein, for many helpful suggestions. 

Michael Higger. 

New York, May 1932. 




TABLE OF CONTENTS 
I. Text: 

1. Introduction 1 

2. Righteousness and Justice 9 

3. Israel and the Nations 27 

4. Peace and Abundance 45 

5. Liberty and Salvation 61 

6. The Holy Land 73 

7. The Holy City 81 

8. A Spiritual Center 91 

9. A New World 101 

10. The Kingdom of God Ill 

II. Notes 119 

III. Bibliography 157 




INTRODUCTION 



CHAPTER I 
INTRODUCTION 

The non-Jewish world will be surprised to learn of a 
Jewish Utopia. The great masses of Christians are brought 
up under the erroneous notion that the Golden Rule, " Thou 
shalt love thy neighbor as thyself ", was proclaimed first by 
Jesus. To inform them that it is already found in the Book 
of Leviticus, 19, 18, would be for them an additional proof 
of rabbinic " legalism ". To the average Christian theologian, 
Judaism and Jewish nationalism terminated with the destruc- 
tion of the Second Temple, and rabbinic writings since that 
period consist mainly of legal dicta and regulations. The 
Talmud is thus catalogued under " philology " at some of 
the otherwise liberal Christian Theological Seminaries. Under 
such a system of Christian education, which is imbued with 
the spirit of a trinity of dogmatism, prejudice, and ignorance, 
no non-Jew would expect a plan for reconstruction of a suf- 
fering humanity to come from the Talmud and cognate 
rabbinic literature. 

Let us, therefore, listen to the opinion of a Talmudist of 
the fourteenth century, concerning the ideal World. R. 
Menahem ben Aaron ibn Zerah was a Spanish codifier, and 
thus a " legalist ". At the end of his code, Zeda la-Derek, 
he says : " It is a fact well-known to every one who would 
admit to the truth . . . that many predictions of the prophets 
concerning a Utopia for Israel and mankind have not been 
fulfilled ... as, for instance : ' And the Lord shall be King 
over all the earth; in that day shall the Lord be One, and 
His name one ' 1 ; ' And they shall beat their swords into 
plowshares and their spears into pruning-hooks ; nation shall 

2 3 



4 THE JEWISH UTOPIA 

not lift up sword against nation, neither shall they learn 
war any more ' 2 . Nations are producing more swords and 
ammunition than in any other time in the past ; wars of 
nation against nation are greater and fiercer than ever be- 
fore. . . . " 3 

Charges of a similar nature are found in one of the late 
Midrashim : " The congregation of Israel says to the Lord : 
Master of the Universe, many good prophecies have the 
prophets of old prophesied, and not even one of them has 
been fulfilled, Jeremiah said, Then shall the virgin rejoice 
in the dance, and the young men and the old together 4 ; 
Hosea said, Yet the number of the children of Israel shall 
be as the sand of the sea 5 ; Joel said, And it shall come to 
pass in that day, that the mountains shall drop down sweet 
wine 6 ; Amos said, Behold, the days come, saith the Lord, 
that the plowman shall overtake the reaper 7 ; Isaiah said, 
The mountain of the Lord's house shall be established as the 
top of the mountains 8 ; and, finally, it was said, There shall 
yet old men and old women sit in the broad places of Jeru- 
salem 9 ; — and we do not see any one of these predictions 
realized. " 10 

The two quotations indicate the key-note to the philosophy 
underlying the rabbinic Utopia. An ideal society among the 
family of nations, as visualized by the prophets, although 
not realized as yet, will ultimately be achieved. Nations will 
come, nations will go. Dogmatic Christianity has come, 
dogmatic Christianity will be gone. "Isms" have created 
nations, " isms " will destroy nations. Capitalism has brought 
happiness and woes to mankind.; communism may bring its 
paradises and hells to mankind. Doctrines have shaped the 
destinies of peoples, doctrines may bring destruction to 
peoples. But the millennium will come only when the nations 
of the earth direct their efforts toward the visions of the 
prophets, and make function the teachings of Amos, Isaiah. 




THE JEWISH UTOPIA 5 

and Micah. Only then will the day be ushered in, in which 
the ideal world and our present era will, in the language of 
a Palestinian Amora, " kiss each other, as a sign of the arrival 
of the new era, and the departure of the old ". u 

Unlike Plato's Republic, where the ends sought are po- 
litical rather than spiritual, the motive of a Prophetic-Rab- 
binic Utopia is the spiritual perfection of human society. In 
the Republic, to be sure, the supreme virtue in the ideal 
commonwealth is Justice. But Plato is chiefly concerned with 
what will hold the ideal city together. The rabbis, on the 
other hand, are mainly interested in that ideology which would 
hold the whole world, or the Universal State, together. The 
ideal behind the Jewish Utopia is spiritual and ethical har- 
mony. 

Furthermore, the main purpose of the Republic is to 
discover the reasons for the merits of Justice over injustice. 
But to the spiritual leaders in Israel, this was no problem 
at all. That Justice was superior to injustice, the rabbis 
knew from common sense, as well as from centuries of 
sad experiences of Israel. 

A similiar contrast may be discerned between modern con- 
ceptions of a Utopia and the rabbinic conception. In Bacon's 
" New Atlantis ", science is the key to universal happiness. 
Campanula's " Civitas Solis " pictures a communistic so- 
ciety, H. G. Wells's Utopia is a world community. It is a 
single civilization whose " net of posts, rules of laws and 
order, are the same in all communities throughout the world ". 
The unit of social life in these schemes varies from, the family, 
as in More, to the world, as in Wells. The main limitation 
of these plans, including that of Wells, is that they are one- 
sided. Their authors do not consider the necessity for a 
spiritual revolution, or for a transvaluation of values. They 
build their ideal structures on the faulty foundations of the 
present system. 






6 THE JEWISH UTOPIA 

A Jewish Utopia begins where Wells leaves off. It starts 
with the world as the basis of the new social life. From that 
viewpoint, the rabbis picture first a scheme of a transvalua- 
tion, of spiritual, intellectual, and material values, and a com- 
plete spiritual transformation. Having laid this foundation 
of the new, ideal order, the Jewish idealists proceed with 
the rest of their plan, and complete the super-structure of their 
Utopia. In that part of the structure, there are, to be sure, 
a few common elements in the rabbinic and the other Utopias ; 
as, the ideals of common interest and mutual helpfulness ; 
cooperation supplanting competition in the new social order ; 
the toil of industry being reduced to a minimum, and thus 
permitting a higher cultural and intellectual life. Like the 
other Utopians, the rabbis were aware of the evils of the 
present conditions, but optimistic as to the potentialities of 
mankind in the future. They believed mankind to be a pro- 
gressive organism endowed with marvellous powers and capa- 
bilities, with endless capacities for moral, ethical, and intellec- 
tual development. 

- Some modern Jewish thinkers maintain that Judaism de- 
veloped historically along the same lines as Christianity, in 
that it was mainly interested in the other world, the world 
of the soul ; Judaism considered this world as a vestibule to 
the world to come. It was only the period of the modern 
reform movement that brought a change of attitude toward 
this world. According to this view, traditional Judaism was 
not primarily concerned with the worthwhilcness of life in 
this world. 

That this theory is absolutely fallacious, one learns from 
the fact that, alongside the views that this world is a prepara- 
tion for the next, rabbinic literature contains numerous pas- 
sages describing the kind of ideal life that nations as well 
as individuals must lead so that a universal paradise of t nan- 
kind might be established in this world — with no reference to 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



the future world whatever. In fact, the yearning for an ideal 
life in this world, as found in rabbinic writings, may be 
much older than the theory that this world is merely a vesti- 
bule to the next world. For that yearning is rooted in the 
teachings of the Prophets, who were mainly concerned with 
an ideal life of universal peace and brotherhood in this world. 

The following is a striking illustration : R. Simeon ben 
Eleazor, a Tanna of the fourth generation, states that the 
wicked are punished and the righteous rewarded, in this 
world, for, in the next world, " his breath goeth forth, he 
returned to his dust ", 12 There may be some relation between 
this view of R. Simeon, and another statement quoted some- 
where else in his name, namely, that he who is prompted 
by love to perform ethical and religious acts is greater than 
he who is prompted to them by fear. 13 At any rate, is not 
the first statement in direct opposition to the doctrine that 
this world is merely a vestibule to the world to come ? 

A picture of a Jewish Utopia on earth is given in a very 
old source, namely, in the Sibylline Books. The passage de- 
scribing an ideal city is found in the oldest portion of the 
Sibylline Books, and is undoubtedly of Jewish origin. Here 
is an extract of it, in accordance with the version rendered 
by Charles : " There is a city Camarina down in the land of 
Ur of the Chaldees, from which comes a race of most right- 
eous men, who ever give themselves up to sound counsel and 
fair deeds. . . . These diligently practise justice and virtue, 
and not covetousness, which is the source of myriad ills to 
mortal men, of war and desperate famine. But they have just 
measures in country and city, nor do they carry out night 
robberies one against another, nor do they drive off herds 
of oxen and sheep and goats, nor does a neighbour remove his 
neighbour's landmarks, nor does a man of much wealth vex 
his lesser brother, nor does anyone afflict widows but rather 
assists them, even ready to supply them with corn and wine 




8 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



and oil. And always the wealthy man among the people sends 
a portion of his harvest to those who have nothing, but are in 
want, fulfilling the command of the Mighty God, the ever 
abiding strain: for Heaven has wrought the earth for all 
alike." 14 

It is commonly charged against the teachers of religion 
that all they can do for us is to give us consolation in our 
present afflictions and lead us to hope for future happiness 
in the world to come ; that all that the church wants is more 
souls for heaven. These accusations certainly cannot be made 
against Judaism. From the time of the prophet Amos down 
to the close of the Mediaeval period, the problem of improv- 
ing the material conditions of Israel and of mankind in gen- 
eral, was the main concern of the spiritual leaders in Israel. 
This is apparent from even a cursory glance at the prophetic 
and rabbinic writings. 

The underlying Jewish attitude is, as Abravanel has pointed 
out throughout his work, Mashmi'a Yeshu'ah, that the major 
predictions of the Prophets concerning universal peace and 
happiness were not realized during the Second Common- 
wealth ; nor have they been fulfilled by Christianity. The 
basis of the Rabbinic Utopia is, therefore, the millennium pic- 
tured by the prophets. The rabbis occasionally give a color- 
ing of their own ; but this plant rooted in prophetic soil was 
watered with the moisture of Israel's age-long experiences 
since the days of the prophets. What are these roots of the 
prophetic idea of a paradise on earth, as understood by the 
rabbis ? The answer to this will be the burden of the following 
chapters. 




RIGHTEOUSNESS AND JUSTICE 






CHAPTER II 

RIGHTEOUSNESS AND JUSTICE 

Words stand for certain symbols, or ideas ; but some words 
have so often been misused that they have lost the very 
ordinary meanings, or symbols, which they were meant to 
convey. One of these unfortunate terms is the word " right- 
eousness ". With the rise of the modern liberal school of 
preaching, the term " righteousness " has become the by- 
word of the preacher of every faith. Just as the homilies of 
the ancient rabbis were saturated with the terms "God", 
" Israel ", and " Torah ", so the modern sermon is adorned 
with " righteousness " in its proposition, body and conclusion. 
But no attempt is made to analyze the meaning and force of 
that term. By now it is difficult to convince the world that 
the word righteousness requires an analysis; that it is pos- 
sible to specify in concrete terms what constitutes righteous- 
ness ; that the Jewish Utopia is built upon this very term, or 
idea, of righteousness ; or, that the Kingdom of God in this 
world will come only when suffering mankind passes through 
the gate of righteousness. 

By a careful study of the rabbinic sayings that picture an 
ideal world, one gets a clear idea as to what constitutes a 
Jewish Utopia. Some of the passages, to be sure, do not 
refer to this life, but rather to the life of the soul in the 
world to come, Nevertheless, they reflect and register, at the 
same time, the rabbinic attitude towards the ideal life of the 
individual, as well as that of the family of nations. 

To understand the rabbinic conception of an ideal world 
it will help us if we imagine a hand passing from land to 
land, from country to country, from the Persian Gulf to the 

11 



12 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



Atlantic Ocean, and from the Indian Ocean to the North 
Pole, marking " righteous " or " wicked " on the forehead 
of each one of the sixteen hundred million inhabitants of our 
earthly globe. We should then be on the right road to- 
ward solving the major problems that burden so heavily the 
shoulders of suffering humanity. For mankind should be 
divided into two, and only two, distinct and unmistakable 
groups, namely, righteous and wicked. To the righteous 
would belong all that which God's wonderful world is offering ; 
to the wicked would belong nothing. In the future, the 
words of Isaiah, in the language of the rabbis, will be ful- 
filled : Behold, My servants shall eat, but ye shall be hungry ; 
behold, My servants shall drink, but ye shall be thirsty ; be- 
hold, My servants shall rejoice, but ye shall be ashamed. 15 
This is the force of the prophecy of Malachi, when he said : 
Then shall ye again discern between the righteous and the 
wicked, between him that serveth God and him that serveth 
him not. 16 

When will this world become a vineyard ? When the Holy 
One, blessed be He, will raise the position of the righteous 
who are degraded in the world. 17 In the present era the 
righteous are afflicted. But in the ideal world, this verse will 
be applied to them : Yea, I will rejoice over them to do them 
good. 18 According to R. Johanan, a Palestinian Amora of the 
third century, all the visions of the prophets describing an 
ideal future, were meant only for repenters and for those 
encouraging scholars in their studies. For, as far as the 
righteous and the scholars themselves are concerned, no mortal 
eye has ever perceived their happy state to which they will 
attain. 19 

All the treasures and natural resources of the world will 
eventually come in possession of the righteous. This would 
be in keeping with the prophecy of Isaiah : " And her gain 
and her hire shall be holiness to the Lord; it shall not be 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



13 



treasured nor laid up; for her gain shall be for them that 
dwell before the Lord, to eat their fill and for stately cloth- 
ing/' 20 Similarly, the treasures of gold, silver, precious stones, 
pearls, and valuable vessels that have been lost in the seas 
and oceans in the course of centuries will be raised up and 
turned over to the righteous. 21 Joseph hid three treasuries in 
Egypt : One was discovered by Korah, one by Antoninus, and 
one is reserved for the righteous in the ideal world. 22 In 
the present era, the wicked are ordinarily rich, having many 
comforts of life, while the righteous are poor, missing the 
joys of life. But in the ideal era, the Lord will open all the 
treasures for the upright, and the unrighteous will suffer. 23 
God, the Creator of the world, is not satisfied with the present 
era in which the wicked prosper. He will be happy, so to 
speak, only in the era to come, when the world will be governed 
by the doings and actions of the upright, and thus all the 
joys and happiness will be shared by the righteous and just. 24 
That scholars would come under the category of the right- 
eous we learn from another source. A scholar asked R. Judah 
ha-Nasi, as to the meaning of the above-mentioned verse, 
" For her gain shall be for them that dwell before the Lord 
to eat their fill and for stately clothing ". To this, R. Judah 
replied : " This alludes to people like you and your colleagues, 
who are wrapped in linen, and who think of themselves of 
no importance whatever." 25 This is corroborated by a state- 
ment of R. Jeremiah to the effect that in the future, the 
Holy One, blessed be He, will rejuvenate the life of the 
scholars, both in their physical constitutions, reflected in 
their facial expressions, and in their attires; — as it is said, 
But they that love Him be as the sun when he goeth forth 
in his might. 20 The main reward of the scholar, however, 
will be intellectual and spiritual in character. 27 Thus, it is 
the scholar who is intellectually master both in this era and in 
the era to come ; 28 and the light of the scholar will be as 
brilliant as torches and lightnings. 29 



14 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



The conception of an ideal Universal State in which only 
the upright and just prosper, is well described in a Utopia, 
pictured by the Prophet Elijah, according to a rabbinic version : 
" Elijah said : I behold ail the wicked of the earth disap- 
peared, and all the righteous in control of the land. The 
earth, planted with all kinds of good things, lies before 
the righteous. The tree which God has planted is standing 
in the midst of the Garden — as it is said, And by the 
river upon the bank thereof, on this side and on that side, 
shall grow every tree for food, whose leaf shall not wither, 
neither shall the fruit thereof fail 30 Ships are coming from 
En-gedi even unto Eglaim, carrying riches and abundance 
for the righteous. 31 I behold a beautiful, large city, coming 
down from heaven. It is the city of Jerusalem, rebuilt, and 
inhabited by her people. The city is situated among three 
thousands towers. The space between each two of the towers 
is twenty * ris \ At the end of each ' ris ' there are twenty- 
five thousand cubits of emeralds and of precious stones and 
pearls. I behold houses and gates of the righteous with 
their proper door-frames. The door-posts are of precious 
stones, and the treasuries of the Temple are open, even unto 
their doors. And learning and peace prevail among them ", 33 

That the righteous should be the only ones entitled to all 
the bliss and happiness in the ideal world, one can easily infer 
from the glorious future which the rabbis picture for the 
just and upright in the world to come. " The Holy One, 
blessed be He ", says R. Eleazor in the name of R. Hanina, 
" will place a crown upon the head of each of the righteous ", 33 
The Lord has stored up for the upright in the Garden of Eden 
all plants that are good to look at and that are best to be 
eaten. 34 Each one of the upright will have a canopy of glory 
for himself, as a sign of his splendour. 35 God will make a 
feast for the righteous, and they would need no balsamum, 
nor any other spices. A northern and a southern wind would 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



15 



bring to them lakes of all kinds of perfumes of the Garden of 
Eden. 36 In the future, the Holy One, blessed be He, will ar- 
range a chorus for the righteous in Paradise. He will sit 
in the center and each of the righteous will be able to point 
to Him with his finger, as it is said ; " And it shall be said in 
that day : Lo, this is our God, for whom we waited, that He 
might save us, this is the Lord, for whom we waited, we will 
be glad and rejoice in His salvation." 37 The Lord will sim- 
ilarly arrange an academy of the righteous in the world, and 
he will preside at their sittings. 38 A meeting of elders, ap- 
pointed by God, would announce the advent of the Kingdom 
of God in the world, and His reign in Mount Zion and in 
Jerusalem. 39 At the sittings the Lord will expound the mean- 
ing of the Torah. After the meetings God will be sanctified 
by one of the members of the group, and this sanctification 
would be universally approved by popular acclamation. 40 

Consequently, in the new era, the upright and just will 
occupy a position next to God. They will be called by the 
name of God ; 41 and they will, therefore, be called " holy ". 42 
Moses, the ideal of a righteous man, will be praised by multi- 
tudes of righteous men, as God was praised by Moses in the 
presence of the multitudes of Israel. 43 In the future, the Lord 
will walk in the Garden of Eden in company with the right- 
eous, considering them His equals. 44 Again, in the ideal 
world, all the glory and victory will be with the righteous. 45 
Before they call, God will answer, and while they are yet 
speaking, He will hearken. 46 In the present era, the Lord 
suffers the trouble of those who worship Him. But in the 
millennium, He will ever be mindful of them. 47 In the new 
era, the upright and just will be received by God as children 
are received by their father and as disciples by their master. 48 
They will be put in a higher position than the angels. 49 

God's goodness is stored up for the righteous. This is in 
accordance with the verse in Psalms : Oh how abundant is 




16 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



Thy goodness, which Thou hast laid up for them that feat 
Thee ! 50 Thus said the Holy One to the righteous : " Because 
of you I have created the world. For had it not been for you, 
to whom would I have given all the goodness and abundance, 
which I have prepared for the future/* 51 Again, the Lord 
said : " Wait for the coming of the Messiah, when the verse 
will be fulfilled : Oh how abundant is Thy goodness, which 
Thou hast laid up for them that fear Thee ! " 52 Each right- 
eous one will have a world for himself, 53 According to another 
tradition, God will give to each righteous: one three hundred 
and ten worlds as his own possession. 54 The Lord, finally, 
will prepare a feast for the upright. 55 He has salted the huge 
Leviathan and has prepared the best food, fruit, fish, and meat 
for that purpose. 56 The feast will be limitless, as it is said, 
Neither hath the eye seen a God beside Thee, who worketh 
for him that waiteth for Him. 57 

The nineteenth century " maskilim ", or Jewish radicals, 
used to exercise their wit by ridiculing all these statements, 
especially the saying that a Leviathan is prepared for the just 
and upright. Poor radicals ! How blind and narrow-minded 
they were that they would not understand the broad humani- 
tarian principle underlying these sayings! Are not these 
predictions a crying protest against the injustices and cruelties 
marking the present era, where the wicked prosper and the 
righteous suffer ? Are they not a warning to suffering human- 
ity that unless the order is reversed, mankind is doomed? 
R. Johanan, who correctly understood the meaning of the 
tradition of the Leviathan, states thus : " The Lord will in 
the future make a hut for the righteous out of a part of the 
skin of the Leviathan. The rest He will place on the walls of 
Jerusalem, and its light will shine forth from one end of the 
world to the other, as it says, And nations shall walk at thy 
light, and Kings at the brightness of thy rising." 58 The 
Leviathan is thus a universal symbol of the new era in which 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



17 



the righteous will prosper and the wicked suffer. The Levia- 
than, furthermore, is the emblem of the ideal age, when this 
world will become the home of the righteous. 59 It is an ideal 
symbol of a new economic order in the" world, when righteous- 
ness will be one's only requisite for acceptance unto the realm 
of happiness and prosperity. Every upright and just indi- 
vidual will be rewarded according to his deeds, 60 and in pro- 
portion to his faithfulness. 61 Those righteous who, because of 
external circumstances, will not be able to contribute their 
mite to the upbuilding of the Kingdom, will nevertheless share 
in the privileges and joys of the new civilization. 62 

Light will be the emblem of the new era. On the first day 
of creation God brought forth a light by which, man could 
see from one end of the world to the other. But when the 
Holy One saw the wickedness of the people in the generations 
to come, He stored up that light for the righteous in the ideal 
era. 63 Thus, light, which is rare in the present era, will be an 
ordinary thing in the ideal world. 64 Just as goodness is stored 
up for the righteous, as it says, " Oh how abundant is 
thy goodness, which Thou hast laid up for them that fear 
Thee; which Thou hast wrought for them that take their 
refuge in Thee, in the sight of the sons of men " ! 65 — so is 
light reserved for the upright, as it says, " Light is sown for 
the righteous, and gladness for the upright in heart ". 66 
"Moreover, the light of the moon shall be as the light of the 
sun, and the light of the sun shall be sevenfold/' 67 But 
eventually the Lord Himself will be the Light of the right- 
eous, as it says, The sun shall be no more thy light by 
day, neither for brightness shall the moon give light unto 
thee; but the Lord shall be unto thee an everlasting light. 68 
" Then the moon shall be confounded, and the sun ashamed ; 
for the Lord of hosts will reign." 69 The light of the Lord 
will thus be the source of life and peace for the righteous, 
as it says, For with Thee is the fountain of life; in Thy 




18 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



light do we see light. 70 Messiah, the ideal righteous one, 
will come from the East, where the sun rises. He will be 
a descendant of the House of David, who was bright as 
the sun; 71 and his light will be a symbol of life for the' 
upright and just in the world. 72 The very name of Messiah 
is, therefore, light. 73 

Consequently, all the beloved of God, the righteous, will 
shine forth as the light of His glory, " even as the sun when it 
goes forth in its might ". 74 Just as the sun and the moon give 
forth light in this era, so will the upright radiate light in the 
era to come, as it says, And nations shall walk at thy light, 
and kings at the brightness of thy rising. 75 There will be 
seven groups of righteous, classified according to seven grades 
of light, namely, the light of the sun, moon, heaven, stars, 
lightnings, lilies, and of the candlestick in the Sanctuary. 76 

This theory of a Utopia of the righteous on earth can be 
easily traced in the Apocryphal and Pseuclepigraphal writings. 
In the Book of Enoch, for instance, we frequently find the 
idea that, in the future era, God will make peace with the 
righteous who will belong to Him, and who will prosper and 
be blessed; that for the elect there will be light, joy and 
peace, and they will inherit the earth; that the abundance 
of the earth, as well as intellectual and spiritual wisdom, will 
be given to the righteous and holy ; and, finally, that all the 
goodness and glory will belong to the upright and just, 77 The 
teachings of the authors of that branch of literature are per- 
meated with the ideals of righteousness. The future belongs 
to the upright. Compare the following sayings : " And now, 
my children, hearken: work judgment and righteousness that 
ye may be planted in righteousness over the face of the whole 
earth, and your glory lifted up before my God, who saved me 
from the waters of the flood " ; 78 " Blessed shall they be 
that shall be in those days. In that day they shall see the 
goodness of the Lord which He shall perform for the genera- 



_ 




THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



19 



tion that is to come, under the rod of chastening of the Lord's 
anointed in the fear of his God, in the spirit of wisdom and 
righteousness and strength ; that he may direct every man in 
the works of righteousness by the fear of God ; that he may 
establish them all before the Lord, a good generation living 
in the fear of God in the days of mercy." 79 
, The wicked, on the other hand, like tall towers, are obstruct- 
ing the light from coming into the world. The unrighteous 
are the real enemies of God, and they will disappear before 
the appearance of the real light, the emblem of the ideal life 
on earth. 80 In the present era, the upright are humiliated. But 
in the millennium, the unrighteous will disappear as the grass 
that withers ; while the righteous will walk with strength and 
pride. 81 

This conception concerning the disappearance of the wicked 
in the ideal era may be traced likewise in the Apocryphal litera- 
ture. One passage in the Book of Enoch reads thus: "In 
these days downcast in countenance shall the kings of the 
earth have become; and the strong who possess the land 
because of the works of their hands. ... As lead in the 
water shall they sink before the face of the righteous, and no 
trace of them shall anymore be found." 82 

The Kingdom of God will not come as long as wickedness 
functions in the world. Only a world of righteousness will 
bring about the Kingdom of God, a kingdom in which God 
will be universally acknowledged as King. 83 The motto of 
the people will be: " Righteous Unite! Better destruction of 
the world than a wicked world ! " The basic principle will be : 
Augment justice and righteousness, and unrighteousness 
will become negligible. There is a European proverb: The 
higher the ape goes, the more he shows his tail. This may 
well be said of wickedness and unrighteousness. Wickedness 
in the wide, humanitarian sense is the octopus in the world. 
Mankind is never to rest until evil and unrighteousness are 
3 



20 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



destroyed, so that all may enjoy and share in the greatest 
possible happiness. 

Who are the wicked ? What constitutes wickedness, which 
is an obstruction to the establishment of the Kingdom of God ? 
No exact definition of these terms can be formulated. A 
few rabbinic passages dealing with the subject, however, give 
a general idea of the meaning of wicked and wickedness, so 
far as a Jewish Utopia is concerned. 

First, no line will be drawn between bad Jews and bad 
non-Jews. There will be no room for the unrighteous, whether 
Jewish or non- Jewish, in the Kingdom of God. All of them 
will have disappeared before the advent of the ideal era on 
this earth. 84 Unrighteous Israelites will be punished equally 
with the wicked of other nations. 85 All the righteous, on the 
other hand, whether Hebrew or Gentile, will share equally 
in the happiness and abundance of the ideal era. 80 R. Joshua 
ben Levi, the well known Palestinian Amora of the first half 
of the third century, seems to me to be in the right, in the 
argument with his friend, R. Hanina, when the former ex- 
presses the liberal view that, in the ideal era, suffering and 
mortality will cease in 'Israel as well as among all other na- 
tions. 87 The ordinary meaning of Isaiah's prophecy, the cen- 
tral point of their argument, supports the view of R. Joshua 
ben Levi : He will swallow up death forever ; and the Lord 
God will wipe away tears from off all faces. 88 

Second, one's external religious observances will not neces- 
sarily put one in the category of the righteous. All those who 
will be observant merely because of personal, materialistic in- 
terests, will belong to the class of the unrighteous. Only those 
who will be observant as a result of their conviction and faith- 
fulness will be welcome into the Kingdom of God. 89 

Third, people who maliciously cause mischief and suffering 
to the upright and just, will be termed wicked, and the King- 
dom of God will not have them. 90 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



21 



Fourth, speculators, dishonest industrialists, and all those 
who accumulate wealth at the expense of the suffering of 
their fellow-men, will be unknown entities in the rabbinic 
Utopia. Although, like the cedars of the forest, they are 
rooted in the life of the present era, their end will come before 
the Kingdom of God is ushered in. 91 

Fifth, those who are thwarting the purposes of God in 
this era, and do not help to build up and bring about the new 
era, will consequently not enter the Kingdom of God. 92 

Sixth, oppression of any kind will not exist in a Jewish 
Utopia : whether it be a case of righteous oppressing righteous, 
wicked oppressing wicked, wicked oppressing righteous, or of 
righteous oppressing wicked, God will always be on the side of 
the oppressed. 93 

Seventh, in accordance with the prophecy of Isaiah, " on 
the day when the Lord alone shall be exalted, all the lofty 
and proud will be brought low". 94 "The loftiness of man 
and his haughtiness shall be brought down." 90 People who 
are of importance in this era, will be of no importance in the 
ideal era to come. 96 On the day when the Kingdom of God 
is ushered in, the countenance of the haughty will change to 
various shades and colors. 97 

Eighth, in the new ideal era, idolatry of any kind, as well 
as idol worship, will be entirely abolished from the earth. 98 
The backward, uncivilized peoples will reach that stage where 
they will be ashamed to continue the practices of idolatry and 
idol worship, and will acknowledge God as the Lord of the 
universe. 99 

Ninth, people yearning for sensual practices, shameful vices, 
arid conditions exciting disgust and hatred, all of which char- 
acterize so conspicuously modern civilization, will not exist 
in the ideal era; — as it says: And the Lord said unto him: 
" Go through the midst of the city, through the midst of 
Jerusalem, and set a mark upon the foreheads of the men 



■ 




22 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



that sigh and cry for all the abominations that are done in the 
midst thereof." 10 ° 

In a Jewish Utopia, therefore, there will be no wicked 
people. Nature itself will be against the wicked. All the 
goodness will be bestowed only upon the upright and just; 
and darkness, the opposite of light, will be the fate of the 
unrighteous. 101 This is what the Psalmist meant in saying, 
" Morning by morning will I destroy all the wicked of the 
land; to cut off all the workers of inquity from the city 
of the Lord." 102 The very light of the sun that will heal the 
righteous, will be destructive to the wicked. 103 This is like- 
wise the meaning of the prophecy of Malachi : " For, behold, 
the day cometh, it burneth as a furnace ; and all the proud, 
and all that work wickedness, shall be stubble ; and the day 
that cometh shall set them ablaze." 10 * The wicked must dis- 
appear from earth before the ideal society of righteous can be 
established. 105 

The praise of the Lord will be universal when there will 
be no more wicked on the earth ; — as it says : And when the 
wicked perish, there is joy. 100 This is the yearning of the 
Psalmist, in saying: Let sinners cease out of the earth, and 
let the wicked be no more; bless the Lord, O my soul. 107 
Adam foresaw the Messianic period, the age of the final strug- 
gle between the upright and the unrighteous, preparing the 
way for the millennium. But he would not say " Hallelujah ", 
or praise the Lord, until he saw that the wicked would finally 
be destroyed. 108 A Utopia of righteous men could be realized 
only when there would be no more wicked in the world. 103 
Righteousness will be the order of the Universal State ; and 
that State will be the embodiment of righteousness under the 
conditions of the new social order. While the upright and just 
will emerge with renewed spirit, progressing from strength 
to strength, the wicked will dwindle and be consumed. 110 In 
the words of Isaiah, " new heavens and a new earth would be 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



23 




created " 1U ; while the earth will be emptied of the unright- 
eous, and the righteous will cleave unto God. 112 In rabbinic 
terminology, the Lord will sit in judgment, and consequently 
lead the upright to the Garden of Eden, and the wicked to Ge- 
henna. 113 The righteous will ascend seven steps, while the 
unrighteous will descend seven steps, 114 

As a result of the new conditions and radical changes, the 
wicked who will be left, will change their attitude toward 
life. The glory and happiness of the upright will plunge the 
unrighteous into sorrow and shame. 115 Rivers of tears will 
flow from the eyes of the wicked. 116 They will then wonder 
how they could have led a wicked life ; 117 and they will finally 
acknowledge God, by saying, " This is the Lord, for whom 
we waited. We will be glad and rejoice in His salvation ". 118 
The unrighteous will thus praise the Lord, and recognize the 
teachings and purpose of God in the world. 119 The Lord's 
compassion will then be moved, and, by putting the blame on 
the evil inclinations inherent in man, He will allow the newly 
converted to enter the new order and to share in His glory. 
They will comprise both Jews and non-Jews. 120 Only a small 
group, the vilest and most worthless element of mankind, as 
typified in the snake of the animal kingdom, will be doomed 
and cut off forever from the new Kingdom of God. 121 The 
newly converted proselytes of righteousness will thus be 
received and put on the same footing with the other members 
of the new civilization and order. " And the glory of the 
Lord shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together ; for 
the mouth of the Lord hath spoken it." 122 

The ideal society of mankind on earth, based on the prin- 
ciples of genuine justice and righteousness will then become a 
fact. The Messiah idea will be realized. This is the meaning 
of the burden of the prophets : " But with righteousness shall 
he judge the poor, and decide with equity for the meek of the 
land ; " 123 " I will raise unto David a righteous shoot, and he 



24 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



shall reign as king and prosper, and shall execute justice and 
righteousness in the land ", 124 In other words, in the universal, 
perfect State, righteousness and happiness will eventually 
coincide. In the present era, the righteous -are never safe. 125 
They are hardly tolerated, and are, therefore, always on the 
defensive. But in the era to come, the upright will constitute 
the society of mankind. 120 The words of the Psalmist will 
then be realized : " Thy righteousness is an everlasting right- 
eousness/' 127 Not only will the upright be safe and protected,, 
but they will feel at home in the world, and will occupy all the 
seats of comfort and rest. 128 The possessions and homes taken 
away unjustly from the upright, will be returned to their 
owners. 129 Various recreations and sports will be provided 
for the righteous in their leisure time. They will fly like 
eagles and swim like fish, and witness the races of the Levia- 
than and others of the animal kingdom. 130 

As soon as wickedness has disappeared, radical industrial 
and economic changes will take place. In the present era, 
says R. Simeon ben Jose ben Lekonya — a Tanna of the fourth 
generation, and a contemporary of R. Judah ha-Nasi the 
First — one man builds and another inhabits the buildings, 
one man plants and another eats the fruit. But in the era 
to come, the prophecy of Isaiah will become true : " They 
shall not build, and another inhabit; they shall not plant, 
and another eat." 181 If we trust the readings of some 
texts of that statement, the saying of R. Simeon ends with 
the second part of the verse of Isaiah: For as the days of 
a tree shall be the days of My people, and Mine elect shall 
enjoy the work of their hands. 132 Yet, there is no doubt that 
R. Simeon foresees the time when, not only Israel as a nation, 
will be no more a prey to other nations, but when human indi- 
viduals in general, will each enjoy the work of his hands. 
All texts agree on the reading " Adam " — man, — instead of 
" Israel ", in the main statement of R. Simeon. The same 



v 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



25 



view, in a somewhat modified form, was expressed later by a 
Palestinian Amora : The satisfaction that man gets in this 
era is nothing as compared with that of the next era. For, at 
present, when man dies he leaves all for others. But, in the 
future, " they shall not build, and another inhabit '\ 133 Still 
later sources have narrowed the application of the prophecy 
of Isaiah, and have interpreted that verse only in the field of 
Jewish scholarship — that, in the ideal era, the learning of a 
genuine scholar, would not only not fail him in his old age, 
but that it would supersede the scholarship of his youth. 134 
Once a society of the righteous is established on earth, 
mankind will be safe. There will be no more danger that 
the world will go through again the sad experiences of 
the past, and that it will repeat the grave errors committed 
during those periods when the unrighteous ruled — periods of 
hypocrisy, corruption, dishonest politics, accumulation of 
wealth in the hands of a few, poverty, want, suffering, rob- 
bery, murder, wars, and kindred evils. The very atmosphere 
of the world will be one of a universal paradise on earth, so 
that the children born in the new age, will grow up just and 
upright. There will be no bad or wicked children. Hence, 
in the words of Isaiah, the smallest shall become a thousand, 
and the least a mighty nation. 135 The rabbinic views thus 
become clear, when the rabbis, in their Oriental exaggeration, 
say : " In the future, every Israelite will daily bring forth 
children in the world " ; 136 " The righteous will bring forth 
successors four or five times yearly." 137 For, when God's 
presence will actually be in the world, and a righteous mankind 
will live in a state of eternal happiness, with naturally healthy 
and developed bodies, they will not but flourish like young 
grass, reproducing naturally generation after generation an 
age of upright and just. 138 



ISRAEL AND THE NATIONS 



I 



CHAPTER III 

ISRAEL AND THE NATIONS 

The question arises : How will that ideal civilization take 
root? In an era like ours, when each nation thinks and acts 
only for its own selfish ends, ignoring the common good and 
welfare of mankind as a whole, is there any hope that the 
nations on earth will suddenly arise from their lethargy, and 
start a new Utopian life? The answer is : One nation would 
have to establish its life on a Utopian foundation, thereby 
leading the way for the rest of the world to follow its example. 
A model, ideal state comprising a group of righteous indi- 
viduals and living an ideal life, will gradually spread its teach- 
ings and influence from nation to nation, throughout the world. 
The Kingdom of God will then become a fact. 

Israel is the only nation that is suited for that purpose. The 
religious experiences of Israel and the ideology of that people 
as voiced by the prophets, qualify it to lead the world in estab- 
lishing a universal Utopia. 130 What Tennyson has said of the 
human race, may well be said of the ideal Israel : " We are the 
Ancients of the earth, and in the morning of the times." 139!l 
The rabbis had wonderful insight into the history and experi- 
ences of Israel and of mankind in general; they viewed them 
from the point of view of God's purpose and of the spiritual 
forces in the world, and they have correctly and frequently 
expressed their opinion that the Kingdom of God will come 
only through an ideal Israel. 140 Israel, living a life in which 
God's presence is made to function, will be a living testimony 
for the nations of the earth of the existence, greatness, and 
glory of God. 141 " When will this world become a vineyard ? 
When the Holy One, blessed be He, will raise, in the eyes of 

29 



30 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



mankind, the position of the people of Israel who are degraded 
in the world." 142 In the era to come, the new Israel, will 
glorify the Creator in His glorious Kingdom. 143 Similarly, in 
the words of the Psalmist, " as the mountains are round about 
Jerusalem, so the Lord will be round about His people ". 144 
Again, in the present era, Israel's voice is not heard ; it has 
no effect on suffering humanity. But in the ideal era, Israel 
will be given an opportunity to speak out. 149 Isaiah's prophecy 
will then be realized : " And their seed shall be known among 
the nations, and their offspring among the peoples ; all that 
see them shall acknowledge them, that they are the seed which 
the Lord hath blessed." 146 Israel will thus become a light, 
a symbol of the ideal life for the nations, so that, in the words 
of Isaiah, " the nations shall walk at Israel's light, and kings 
at the brightness of Israel's rising '\ 147 

The tradition of the " chosen people " is to be interpreted in 
this light. Just as the bride on her wedding day — remark the 
rabbis — is not superior to her sisters, except for »the jewels 
which she displays, so the ideal Israel will be considered 
superior only in so far as her light, or her spiritual life and 
teachings will influence the nations. 148 The people of Israel 
will thus conquer, spiritually, the nations of the earth, so 
that Israel will be made high above all nations in praise, in 
name, and in glory. 149 In saying that " God cares for the 
Holy Land and that the eyes of the Lord are always upon 
it ", 150 we mean that He cares for that land, through which 
His care will be extended to all other lands. Similarly, when 
we say that " the Lord keeps Israel ", 151 we mean that He 
guides Israel through whom His guidance will be extended to 
the rest of the world. 152 Thus, in the language of the rabbis, 
God says to Israel, On account of you I bestow goodness upon 
all creatures in the world. 153 This is the force of the verse: 
i( And I have set you apart from the peoples, that ye should be 
Mine." 154 An ideal Israel was set apart as a constant reminder 




THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



31 



for the nations of the earth that they should change their ways 
and follow the ways of God. 155 

The Jews thus allude to their moral responsibility in their 
daily morning prayers : " Thou hast chosen us from all peoples 
and tongues, and has brought us near unto thy great name for 
ever in faithfulness, that we might in love give thanks unto 
thee and proclaim thy unity." 156 We should understand in 
a similar sense the passage in the Book of Jubilees, concerning 
the seed of Abraham and Isaac : " And that all the seed of his 
sons should be Gentiles ; but from the sons of Isaac one should 
become a holy seed and should not be reckoned among the 
Gentiles. For he should become the portion of the Most High, 
and all his seed had fallen into possession of God, that it 
should be unto the Lord a people for His possession above all 
nations and that it should become a kingdom and priests and 
a holy nation." 157 The nations will gradually come to the 
realization that godliness is identical with righteousness, that 
God cleaves to Israel, the ideal righteous nation. The peoples 
of the earth will then proclaim to Israel : We will go with you, 
for we have heard that God is with you. 158 

Before the nations of the world recognize Israel as the ideal 
people, Israel will have to undergo a spiritual development. 
The Jew will have to be prepared to lead the world to right- 
eousness. For, it will be a serious and daring challenge to 
Israel, a challenge in which the fate of humanity will be in- 
volved. 

The first step will be the adjustment of Israel's every day 
life to the principles of truth, justice, and righteousness, as 
understood in the ideology of a living universal God. These 
principles will not be merely blank and empty phrases as em- 
ployed by modern professional preachers. They will actually 
function in the relationships between Jew and Jew. " Then 
shall the nations bless themselves by God, and in God shall 
they glory," 159 Justice and righteousness, in the Midrashic 



32 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



phraseology, will thus, by the command of the Lord, become 
the crown of Israel. 160 For, the ideal Israel will be a righteous 
people. Each member of that people will live a righteous 
life, and there will be no unrighteous individuals among 
them. 161 It is for this reason that the rabbis, as a rule, when- 
ever they describe the ideal era to come, identify the people 
of Israel with the righteous in the world. The ideal Israel 
has to lead the world in righteousness, so that wickedness 
will entirely disappear from the earth, and all the righteous 
will get their proper reward. 162 

Second, an ideal Israel will have to be a holy people. 163 
Their holiness will be so apparent that every one will call 
them the holy ones, 164 The source of that state of holiness 
will be their clean and sinless life. The prophecy of Ezekiel 
will then be realized : " And the nations shall know that I am 
the Lord that sanctify Israel, when My sanctuary shall be 
in the midst of them for ever." 165 The Lord Himself will 
cleanse Israel from all their uncleanliness and from all their 
idols. 166 That cleansing will be for everlasting ; 167 and no 
animal sacrifices will be necessary for that cleansing. 168 The 
sins of Israel in the past will be entirely forgotten. 169 Evil 
inclinations in man, the main causes leading to sin, will be re- 
moved from Israel; and another prophecy of Ezekiel will be 
fulfilled : " A new heart also will I give you, and a new spirit 
will I put within you ; and I will take away the stony heart out 
of your flesh, and I will give you a heart of flesh." 17 ° Zion, 
the ideal country, will be given to Israel as an eternal posses- 
sion, because of Israel's sinlessness and purity. 171 With the 
evil inclinations removed, there will be no more problem of 
sin and suffering. The main concern of the ideal people will 
be how to utilize God's goodness which is stored up for them. 
As a result of the abundance which God will have bestowed 
upon the people, it will be possible for them to devote them- 
selves exclusively to their completest moral and spiritual de- 
velopment. 172 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



33 



Third, Israel will become a nation of prophets. " In the past 
only a few individuals were gifted with prophecy. But in 
the ideal era, every Israelite will be a prophet." 173 For, that 
ideal people will reach spiritual, moral, and cultural perfection, 
and will thus have learned God's purpose in the world. 174 Na- 
ture itself will cooperate with the nation of prophets, in 
.prophesying an optimistic future for mankind ; it will be an 
optimism symbolized by sweet wine dropped down by moun- 
tains. 175 Experiencing God will naturally bring the people 
to a sense of piety. 176 

Fourth, Israel will become a nation of scholars. This will 
be in accordance with the prophecy of Isaiah : " And all thy 
children shall be taught of the Lord ; and great shall be the 
peace of thy children." 177 Israel will experience a spiritual 
and cultural renaissance, resembling the revelation they ex- 
perienced in receiving the Torah on Mount Sinai. 178 Wisdom 
and learning will instil new life into the people. 179 The basis 
of that culture and wisdom, through which God's glory will 
be manifest upon Israel, and by light of which nations will 
walk, will be the Torah, Israel's traditional inheritance. 180 For, 
the' source of Israel's new life of righteousness and of divine 
glory will be rooted in the Torah. 181 Wisdom, understanding, 
and knowledge, the three teachings of the Messiah to the na- 
tions of the earth, will be the inherent qualities of Israel, the 
ideal people. 182 Learning and culture will not be merely for 
the privileged few. The whole people will be versed in the 
teachings of God. This will be in accordance with the prophecy 
of Jeremiah: But this is the covenant that I will make with 
the house of Israel, saith the Lord, I will put My law in their 
inward parts and in their heart will I write it. 183 

Fifth, in the ideal era, Israel will be peacefully united and 
no enmity of any kind will exist among them. They will be 
the ideal people of peace and brotherhood. 184 That state of 
peace will be attained through their high standard of knowl- 



34 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



edge and culture. 185 As a result of their spiritually united 
front, the Lord will be to the ideal people an everlasting 
light. 186 Similarly, the leaders in Israel will be peacefully 
united in their responsible task of directing the fate of that 
historic people. 187 Israel will consequently become the in- 
strument of peace among the nations of the world. The 
prophecy of Isaiah will thus be realized : Behold, I will 
extend peace to her like a river. 188 

Sixth, Irsael will be a living testimony to the absolute unity 
of God. Consequently, in the ideal era, there will be no people 
who will believe in the division of the Godhead into two or 
more parts, or persons. 189 Only those peoples who believe in 
one God will survive in the ideal world. 190 Furthermore, the 
ideal people, by cleaving to God, will be an eternal witness to 
the Lord, that He is the true God, the living God, and the 
everlasting King. 191 Indeed, the main justification for Israel's 
distinctiveness and separation from all other nations, will be 
that she identifies herself with the living and everlasting God, 
the Holy One of Israel ; 192 that she preserves the memory 
of her historic experience of receiving the Torah ; and that she 
gives the Torah's ethical teachings to mankind. 193 

Such will then be the perfect ideal nation, comprising a 
people of righteousness, holiness, prophecy, learning, peace, 
and godliness. The Lord, therefore, promised Moses that in 
the ideal era, He would be glorified in Israel. 194 For, an ideal 
people like Israel, having attained perfection, must ultimately 
have a far reaching influence on the course o£ the destiny of 
nations. In the rabbinic terminology, the spiritual fire of 
Israel will devour the wicked nations. 195 The following biblical 
verse will then be fulfilled : " And all the peoples of the earth 
shall see that the name of the Lord is called upon thee, and 
they shall be afraid of thee." 196 The prophecy of Isaiah will 
likewise be realized : " And their seed shall be known among 
the nations, and their offspring among the peoples ; all that see 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



35 



them shall acknowledge them, that they are the seed which 
the Lord hath blessed." 107 Light, the emblem of the individual 
righteous, will also be the emblem of Israel. For, the Lord 
will be to the ideal people an everlasting light. 198 " Moreover, 
the light of the moon shall be as the light of the sun, and the 
light of the sun shall be sevenfold, as the light of the seven 
days." 199 Unto Israel that light of the sun of righteousness 
shall arise with healing in its wings. 200 Thus, in the ideal era, 
the light and glory of Israel will be of a divine nature, and, 
therefore, resemble the flaming glory of the Lord. This is 
the force of Isaiah's prophecy : " And the light of Israel shall 
be for a fire, and his Holy One for a flame," 201 Again, as 
in the case of the individual righteous, God's goodness is stored 
up for the ideal Israel, the righteous people. Hence, the ex- 
clamation of the Psalmist : " Oh how abundant is Thy good- 
ness, which Thou hast laid up for them that fear Thee ! " 202 
Abundance, joy, wealth, plenty, and other sources of happi- 
ness, await Israel, the righteous people, in the ideal era. 20i 
Israel will be blessed eternally, because their blessing will 
come no more through mortals, but directly from God. 204 As 
the ideal, upright people, they will be loved and favored by 
God. 205 

The effects on the spiritual life of the nations will be mo- 
mentous. The evil inclinations in man and peoples will gradu- 
ally disappear. Mankind will, therefore, be in a position to 
become united for the common happiness. The nations would 
first unite for, the purpose of calling upon the name of the 
Lord, to serve Him. This will be in accordance with the 
prophecy of Zephaniah : " For then will I turn to the peoples 
a pure language, that they may all call upon the name of the 
Lord, to serve Him with one consent." 206 For, the nations 
would be envious of the new, ideal life of Israel, the ideal 
people. 207 The more progressive nations will then eagerly 
join Israel, the ideal nation, in calling upon the name of the 
4 



36 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



Lord, to serve Him; and they will solemnly promise God 
and Israel to reject idolatry and idol worship in every form. 208 
In the ideal era, therefore, all the nations and the kingdoms, 
in the words of the Psalmist, will be gathered together to serve 
the Lord; all of them participating in Israel's praising of the 
Lord. 209 

The unrighteous nations, as typified in the traditional Esau, 
who persist in their wickedness and injustices, will not share 
in the ideal era. Their rule will be destroyed and will dis- 
appear from earth before the ushering in of the millennium. 210 
The wickedness of these nations will consist mainly in ac- 
cumulating money belonging to the people, and of oppressing 
and robbing the poor. 211 These nations will be summoned to 
judgment, before the advent of the Kingdom of God. This 
will be in accordance with the prophecy of Obadiah : "And 
saviours shall come up on mount Zion to judge the mount 
of Esay ; and the kingdom shall be the Lord's." 212 Another 
group of wicked nations, as typified in the traditional Edom 
and Rome, will suffer the same fate as the first group. Their 
unrighteousness will be characterized by corrupt governments, 
and by their oppressions of Israel. These nations will not 
exist in the ideal era, and their rule will be abolished before 
the advent of the Messianic age. 213 Allied with these unright- 
eous nations are those peoples who possess the wicked traits 
of the traditional Amalekites, Ishmaelites, and Gibeonites. 
Before the dawn of the new era, their end will come. 214 

The advent of the new era will thus be preceded by the 
" travail " of the Messianic time, namely, great distress, 
foreign invasions, confusions, and moral decline. 215 According 
to another tradition, the three generations preceding the 
Messianic period will possess abundance of silver and gold, 
and other luxuries. Hence, the people will lead an immoral 
and ungodly life. 216 A description of the dissensions, immor- 
alities, struggles, dissatisfactions, and sufferings of that pe- 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



37 



riod, is already found scattered in many places in the Pseudepi- 
graphal literature. 217 In general, the peoples of the world will 
be divided into two main groups, the Israelitic and the non- 
Israelitic. The former will be righteous ; they will live in ac- 
cordance with the wishes of one, universal God ; they will be 
thirsty for knowledge, and willing, even to the point of mar- 
tyrdom, to spread ethical truths to the world. All the other 
peoples, on the other hand, will be known for their detestable 
practices, idolatry, and similar acts of wickedness. They will 
be destroyed and will disappear from earth before the ushering 
in of the ideal era. 218 All these unrighteous nations will be 
called to judgment, before they are punished and doomed. 
The severe sentence of their doom will be pronounced upon 
them only after they have been given a fair trial, when it will 
have become evident that their existence would hinder the ad- 
vent of the ideal era. 219 Thus, at the coming of the Messiah, 
when all righteous nations will pay homage to the ideal right- 
eous leader, and offer gifts to him, the wicked and corrupt 
nations, by realizing the approach of their doom, will bring 
similar presents to the Messiah. Their gifts and pretended 
acknowledgment of the new era, will be bluntly rejected. 220 
For the really wicked nations, like the wicked individuals, 
must disappear from earth before an ideal human society of 
righteous nations can be established. No ideal era of mankind 
can be established as long as there are peoples living idolatrous, 
ungodly lives ; as long as there are oppressors of the righteous, 
friends of slavery, enemies of freedom and liberty, and defiant 
enemies of God. 221 

Hence, Israel, and the other righteous nations, will combat 
the combined forces of the wicked, unrighteous nations under 
the leadership of Gog and Magog. 222 Assembled for an attack 
upon the righteous nations in Palestine near Jerusalem, the 
unrighteous will suffer a crushing defeat, and Zion will 
thenceforth remain the center of the Kingdom of God. The 







38 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



defeat of the unrighteous will mark the annihilation of the 
power of the wicked who oppose the Kingdom of God and 
the establishment of the new ideal era. 223 

This struggle will not be merely the struggle of Israel 
against her national enemies but the climax of the struggle 
between the two general opposing camps of the righteous and 
unrighteous. A saying in the name of Rab states that the 
descendant of the house of David will appear as the head 
of the ideal era only after the whole world will have suffered, 
for a continuous period of nine months, from a wicked corrupt 
government, like the historical, traditionally wicked Edom; 224 
Another view, implying the same idea, is stated in the name 
of R. Ishmael, namely, that three wars in three different parts 
of the world will take place during the period preceding the 
advent of the ideal era. The fiercest of these three wars will 
be the one that will take place at Rome. 225 Moreover, rab- 
binic sources, in speaking of Israel's fate in the ideal era, as- 
cribe Israel's spiritual victory in the future to the fact that 
righteousness will be victorious over wickedness, and that 
the upright and just will succeed in bringing about the disap- 
pearance of the unrighteous from the earth. 220 The following 
statement of the rabbis is in point : When the prophecy of 
Isaiah will be fulfilled, " But with righteousness shall he judge 
the poor, and decide with equity for the meek of the land ", 227 
— then shall Israel say with the Psalmist : " I will lift up mine 
eyes unto the mountains : From whence shall my help come ? 
My help cometh from the Lord, Who made heaven and 
earth." 228 

When they discourse about the victory of the righteous 
over the wicked, the Jewish sources rarely imply the idea of 
revenge on the part of the upright and the just. The wicked 
are to be eliminated from the scene merely because the destiny 
of humanity is to be guided and controlled by a new army, 
the army of the righteous. A change of power will have to 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



39 



take place, whereby the righteous will assume the responsi- 
bilities of the new state of the affairs of mankind. A passage 
somewhat to this effect is to be found in one of the Pseudepi- 
graphal Books : " Those, therefore, who do and fulfil the 
commandments of God shall increase and be prospered. But 
those who sin and set at nought the commandments shall be 
without the blessings before mentioned; and they shall be 
punished with many torments by the nations. But wholly to 
root out and destroy them is not permitted." 229 

Consequently, before the Kingdom of God will be estab- 
lished, a number of important reforms and changes will take 
place. Idolatry and idol worshippers, wicked people, un- 
righteous nations will disappear from the earth. 230 Govern- 
ments and other social organizations interfering with the 
freedom and liberty of the individual will not be known, 281 
The foundations of the Kingdom of God will be justice and 
righteousness. This will be in accordance with the prophecy 
of Isaiah : " But the Lord of hosts is exalted through justice, 
and God the Holy One is sanctified through righteousness." 232 
Every individual of all people will have high ethical and moral 
standards. Idolatry, theft, robbery, consanguineous marriage 
relationships, murder, and similar evils will not exist. 233 Mes- 
siah will then be recognized by all the peoples of the earth 
as the one who will usher in the ideal era. Accordingly, all 
the nations will bring gifts to the leader of the new era. 234 
" Post-men carrying the gifts will be numerous/' 285 More- 
over, the very people of Israel, the ideal righteous people, 
will be the honorary gift that the nations will offer to the 
Messiah, the ideal righteous head. 230 

Eventually, the ushering in of the ideal Messianic era will 
be a universal event. 237 The words of the Psalmist will then 
be realized : Ask of Me, and I will give the nations for thine 
inheritance. 238 Palestine, and Jerusalem with its spiritual 
center, the Temple, will be recognized by all the nations of 



40 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



the earth, as the holy places of God, which will send forth 
God's word to the rest of the world. The prophecy of Isaiah 
will thus be fulfilled : " And it shall come to pass in the end 
of the days, that the mountain of the Lord's house shall be 
established as the top of the mountains, and shall be exalted 
above the hills ; and all nations shall flow into it. And many 
peoples shall go and say : * Come ye, and let us go up to the 
mountain of the Lord, to the house of the God of Jacob; 
and He will teach us of His ways, and we will walk in His 
paths.' For out of Zion shall go forth the Law and the word 
of the Lord from Jerusalem." 230 The city of Jerusalem will 
thus become the metropolis of the whole world, and the nations 
will walk at her spiritual light. 240 The prophecy of Jeremiah, 
likewise, will then be realized : " At that time they shall call 
Jerusalem the throne of the Lord ; and all the nations shall 
be gathered unto it, to the name of the Lord, to Jerusalem." 241 
In the era to come, the number of children of Israel, or of 
the righteous, will consequently be, in the words of Hosea, 
as the sand of the sea, which cannot be measured nor num- 
bered. 242 There is a disagreement of opinion between R. Jose 
and R. Meir as to whether or not illegitimate children, 
Nethinim, and other rejected members of the house of Israel 
will be reinstated into the fold in the ideal era to come. 243 
The Babylonian Talmud decides in favor of the opinion of 
R. Jose, the lenient view. 244 The reading in the Yerushalmi, 
giving a view of R. Joseph in an apparent contradiction to the 
view of R, Joseph in the Babylonian Talmud, is doubtful and 
untrustworthy. 245 Professor L, Ginzberg has called my 
attention to the fact that in his Yerushalmi Fragments, 240 
that statement is not found at all. Besides, in the Babylonian 
Talmud, R. Joseph remarks clearly and definitely that Samuel 
was right in stating that the final law is to follow the attitude 
of R. Jose. Other rabbinic sources support the opinion of 
R, Jose that all lines of demarcation will be removed among 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



41 









the various groups of Israel in the ideal era to come. 247 
Furthermore, multitudes of proselytes will be absorbed and 
assimilated. 248 With the exception of two or three statements, 
all rabbinic sources, not only favor proselytes at the advent of 
the ideal era, but even suggest that only through the method 
of proselytizing, the Jewish Utopia of an ideal era on earth 
will be realized. 249 Thus, by coming in contact commercially 
with Palestine, especially with Jerusalem, the seat of the Jew- 
ish Utopia, the nations and rulers of the world will be greatly 
impressed by the spiritual unity of Israel, so that they will 
be converted and will join Israel. 2 *' 50 Again, in the present era, 
only individuals were proselytized. But in the era to come, 
all the righteous will be brought under the influence of God's 
presence, as it says, " For then will I turn to the peoples a 
pure language, that they may all call upon the name of the 
Lord to serve Him with one consent ''. 251 The statement that 
no proselytes will be accepted in the Messianic period, refers 
only to such candidates who may be attracted by selfish pur- 
poses rather than by Israel's moral and ethical teachings. 252 
Similarly, the view that proselytes prevent or cause the delay 
of the advent of the Messianic era, alludes to converts who 
do not live up to the ideology and moral standards of Israel. 203 
In other words, only those who are convinced of Israel's divine 
purpose in the world, will be welcome to join Israel in the 
upbuilding of an ideally spiritual life on earth. 254 

Israel, the ideal, righteous people, will thus become spir- 
itually the masters of the world, and will spread their moral 
and spiritual influence from one end of the world to the 
other. 255 All the nations will then believe in one, righteous 
God, as it says, " And the Lord shall be King over all the 
earth; in that day shall the Lord be One, and His name 
one '\ 256 Righteousness will eventually be to universal happi- 
ness what the implements of the workmen are to his work. 
The very atmosphere of the new social order of the Universal 






42 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



State will be saturated with justice and righteousness. Hence, 
with the advent of the Messiah, who will usher in the ideal 
era, all the national ensigns and laws, which are barriers to 
genuine international peace, brotherhood, and the happiness 
of mankind, will gradually disappear. Only the Messianic flag, 
the symbol of knowledge, peace, tranquillity of the individual 
mind, will remain, and all the nations will center round that 
emblem. 257 In the present era every one recognizes his own 
standard, or flag, and through that standard, the individual 
identifies himself with the subdivisions of mankind, But in 
the ideal era, all these castes, divisions, and subdivisions will 
not exist. All will recognize one flag or standard, bearing the 
name of God. 258 Israel is, therefore, looking forward to that 
day, when the prophecy of Isaiah will be realized : " Behold, 
I will lift up My hand to the nations, and set up Mine ensign 
to the peoples." 259 There will no longer be a problem of 
militarism, preparedness, fortifications, barracks, armies, 
navies, immigration, tariffs, and their like. That problem will 
be a pure matter of past history and intellectual curiosity. 
Nations, with their respective cultures, will not only tolerate 
each other but will appreciate each other's cultural and intellec- 
tual backgrounds and traditions. The world will be one open 
city, free for intercourse of trade, migration, and education. 
Genuine liberty and freedom will be the watchwords of the 
new social order in the world. The whole earth will be for 
the whole human race. 

The nations will consequently change their attitude toward 
Israel. Instead of despising Israel, they will pay their due 
respect to the ideal people. This will be in accordance with 
the prophecy of Isaiah : " Thus saith the Lord, the Redeemer 
of Israel, his Holy One, to him who is abhorred of nations, 
to a servant of rulers : Kings shall see and arise, princes and 
they shall prostrate themselves." 2G0 For the first time in the 
history of Israel, since their dispersion, they will secure their 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



43 






real liberty and freedom, and will fear no nation or individual. 
No people will rule, or have power, over the ideal people. 261 
Every Israelite will walk upright and will fear no creature on 
earth. 262 Israel, the vineyard of the Lord, hitherto trodden 
upon and despised, will now be duly respected and appre- 
ciated. 263 The nations will finally realize that after all the 
dispersion of the Jews for centuries among them was morally 
and spiritually a blessing for mankind. The world will, there- 
fore, unite in praising the Lord for Israel's universalism. 264 
Hence, all the nations on earth will gladly aid in the bringing 
about of the redemption of Israel ; 265 and they will be happy 
on the day of that momentous, historic event of Israel's re- 
demption. 266 These nations will thus proclaim : " The Lord 
hath done great things with these. 1 ' 26T To the delight and 
astonishment of the Jew and Gentile alike, Israel will now 
live in peace and safety. Mankind will be united in the opinion 
that this could be accomplished only by the will and plan of 
God. 268 




PEACE AND ABUNDANCE 




CHAPTER IV 

PEACE AND ABUNDANCE 

In the program of the Jewish Prophets for an ideal life in 
this world, next to righteousness and justice, comes universal 
peace. The classical utterings of Isaiah and Micah, " And 
they shall beat their swords into plowshares, and their spears 
into pruning-hooks ; nation shall not lift up sword against 
nation, neither shall they learn war any more ", 2 ™ — may be 
adopted with great advantage for mankind as an ideal motto 
by a twentieth century League of Nations. 

In the case of universal peace, as in the case of the sublime 
principles of justice and of righteousness, the rabbis follow 
the footsteps of their predecessors, the prophets. In one of the 
legal controversies concerning the law of the Sabbath, the 
Tannaim are of the unanimous opinion that the prophecies of 
Isaiah and Micah regarding universal peace will be realized 
in the ideal era to come. 270 Even the much quoted, but little 
understood, statement of the Amora Samuel does not challenge 
the truth of that prophecy. That statement is to the effect that 
with the exception of the terminating of the subjection of the 
exiled, there will be no radical changes in the Messianic 
period. 271 According to the Talmud, this view is in direct 
conflict with the view of R. Hiyya bar Abba that the prophe- 
cies of the Prophets, including that of universal peace, will 
be fulfilled, not in the world to come, but in the Messianic 
period. 272 In other words, according to all, including Samuel, 
the prophecy of universal peace will come true. Samuel meant 
only to say that the Messianic period is too soon a time for 
the realization of that dream, and that that yearning will be 
realized only after the Messianic period. 

47 



48 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



It is not surprising, therefore, to find in rabbinic literature 
the idea o£ the Messiah closely associated with the concept of 
universal peace and brotherhood. 273 When the Messiah ar- 
rives — say the rabbis — his message will be that of universal 
peace. 274 The foundation of the Utopia of the righteous will 
be universal peace. 275 Only those who encourage and love 
peace will share the enjoyments and happiness of the new 
social order. 276 The ideal Jerusalem, the capital of the ideal 
Zion, headed by the ideal house of David, will have her 
foundations rooted in universal brotherhood. 277 Similarly, 
the ideal Israel and the returning of the exiled will signify 
universal peace and genuine brotherhood. 278 This will be in 
accordance with the utterings of the Psalmist: " For not by 
their own sword did they get the land in possession " ; f< For 
I trust not in my bow, neither can my sword save me '\ 279 
The inner life of the people of Israel, especially the family 
life, will, likewise, be one of perfect accord and harmony. 
In the words of Malachi, the heart of the fathers will be 
turned to the children, and the heart of the children to their 
fathers. 280 The peaceful life of the people will be intensified 
and enhanced by widespread education and universal knowl- 
edge of God. This will be in keeping with the prophecy of 
Isaiah : " And all thy children shall be taught of the Lord ; 
and great shall be the peace of thy children." 281 

We find mentioned occasionally in rabbinic writings two 
main causes that lead to wars and thus obstruct the way to 
universal peace and brotherhood. One is a natural phenom- 
enon, the other — an artificial one. The first is the so-called 
biological necessity for war, or the animal instinct in man to 
fight and to devour the weaker creatures. The rabbis, like 
the prophets, expressed their opinion, therefore, that, in 
the age to come, a radical change in the instincts of the animal 
world would take place — animals being ever on the same 
path of evolution as man is, though most species of them 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



49 






are far behind most of mankind. The natural instinct to 
light, in order to conquer and to destroy, is a disease, which 
is a remnant of the defects in nature of the past era. In the 
course of ages, the beasts will be cured of that disease or 
weakness. Consequently, man, too, will learn to live in peace 
and harmony. This is the force of the prophecy of Isaiah: 
."And the wolf shall dwell with the lamb, and the leopard 
shall lie down with the kid . . . and a little child shall lead 
them .... And the sucking child shall play on the hole 
of the asp, and the weaned child shall put his hand on 
the basilisk's den. They shall not hurt nor destroy in all My 
holy mountain; for the earth shall be full of the knowledge 
of the Lord, as the waters cover the sea." 2S2 In a similar 
sense, one may understand the following passage in the Pseu- 
depigraphal Book of Enoch : " And all that had been destroyed 
dispersed, and all the beasts of the field, and all the birds of 
the heaven, assembled in that house, and the Lord of the sheep 
rejoiced with great joy because they were all good and had 
returned to His house. And I saw till they laid down that 
sword, which had been given to the sheep, and they brought it 
back into the house, and it was sealed before the presence of 
the Lord." 283 A still more striking saying is found in 
another Pseudepigraphai work : " And wild beasts shall come 
from the forest and minister unto men. And asps and dragons 
shall come forth from their holes to submit themselves to a 
little child." 284 

In other words, religion is to be the love of mankind. When 
wisdom, or the knowledge of the Lord, is uppermost, war 
will cease. People will have to be so mentally trained as to 
be able to discriminate between transitory and permanent 
wilues. Nations, as well as local organizations, will have 
to establish brotherhoods in the Universal State based upon 
the principles of universal peace and love. The motto will 
be: Where there is peace, God is. For, when two quarrel. 



50 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



both are in the wrong. This attitude will be quite the contrary 
to the philosophy of Bismarck, the exponent of modern mili- 
tarism, as expressed by himself: "The great questions of 
the time are solved not by speech-making and the resolution 
of majorities, but by blood and iron." If we want peace we 
must be peaceable. Brotherly love knows no compromises. 

The second cause, which is the result of man's -faulty atti- 
tude, leading' to wars, and hindering the establishment of 
universal peace, is want, lack of the necessities of life, and 
general poverty of a part of the population all the time. 
The cause of all discords and struggles is the disproportion- 
ate distribution of life's necessities among men — where part 
of the people have too much, and others have little or nothing. 
Universal peace and brotherhood will be established on earth 
only when that obstacle be removed, when each man will 
be given a chance to earn and possess the necessary things that 
make life happy and wholesome. The prophecy of Zechariah 
will then be fulfilled : " In that day, saith the Lord of hosts, 
shall ye call every man his neighbour under the vine and 
under the fig-tree." 285 For, love, brotherhood, and genuine 
friendship will exist only when there are abundance and 
plenty, so that those who are fortunate to possess them 
will see to it that they are distributed equally among all 
people. 286 This truth is well expressed in one of the Sibylline 
Books : " For earth the universal mother shall give to mortals 
her best fruit in countless store of corn, wine and oil. . . . 
And the cities shall be full of good things and the fields rich ; 
neither shall there be any sword throughout the land nor battle 
din; nor shall the earth be convulsed any more with deep- 
drawn groans. No wars shall there be any more nor drought 
throughout the land, no famine nor hail to work havoc on the 
crops. But there shall be a great peace throughout all the 
earth . . . and a common law for men throughout all the 
earth shall the Eternal perfect in the starry heaven for all 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



51 






those things which have been wrought by miserable mortals. 
. . . For nought but peace shall come upon the land of the 
good ; and the prophets of the Mighty God shall take away 
the sword. . . . Even wealth shall be righteous among men ; 
for this is the judgment and the rule of the Mighty God/' 2ST 

This view brings us to the problem of poverty in general 
from the viewpoint of a rabbinic Utopia. We find, to be sure, 
a few sayings in rabbinic literature that justify poverty in 
this era. on purely theological grounds ; namely, that poverty 
which undoubtedly causes suffering to the poor, prepares the 
souls of the victims to enter the other world, and that it also 
tests the soul of the rich, who, by helping the poor, might 
save themselves from the Day of Judgment. 288 

With regard to the ideal era, however, the consensus of 
opinion of the rabbis is that there will be no poverty whatever. 
The above-mentioned statement of the leading Babylonian 
Amora, Samuel, that there would be no radical changes in the 
Messianic period because of the verse, " For the poor shall 
never cease out of the land ", 2S0 — is to be interpreted as in 
the case of the question of universal peace, namely, that the 
Messianic period is too soon a time for the realization of the 
dream of universal economic equality. Nevertheless, the 
dream will become a fact when the Messianic period will 
have passed. 290 This truth is also implied in a remark made 
by a younger contemporary and namesake of the Babylonian 
Amora, Samuel, namely, Samuel ben Nahman, the most 
famous Palestinian haggadist of the third century. He found 
an apparent contradiction, concerning poverty in the future, 
in two verses in the fifteenth chapter of Deuteronomy. In 
one verse it says : Flowbeit there shall be no needy among 
you. 201 Another verse reads : For the poor shall never cease 
out of the land. 292 Samuel ben Nahman thus explains that 
the second verse refers to the present "disgraceful con- 
dition ", and that, for this reason, that verse, does not refer 

5 



52 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



to Israel. 293 The expression " disgraceful condition " proves 
clearly the attitude of the rabbinic authorities of that period 
towards the problem of poverty in the future. An ideal con- 
dition of social life implies an era in which poverty is entirely 
abolished. 

Furthermore, the very rabbinic protests against the injus- 
tices done to the Jewish people on the part of the non- Jewish 
nations, and their hope for Israel's final redemption, were 
mainly based on the conviction of Israel's spiritual leaders 
that justice for the oppressed and the poor would finally be 
obtained in the era to come. 294 The rabbis correctly observed 
the similarity of the problem of the righteous, and yet poor, 
individual, and of the righteous, and yet helpless, people of 
Israel. They, therefore, express their hopes that, in the ideal 
era to come, righteousness will be victorious over unright- 
eousness, and that the poor and the oppressed, because of 
their righteousness will be fully relieved of their suffering. 295 
Thus, the Lord will arise and judge the world for having 
caused the suffering of the poor. In the words of the Psalmist, 
" For the oppression of the poor, for the sighing of the needy 
now will I arise, saith the Lord '\ 296 Again, R. Simeon ben 
Yohai says : " In this era the rich benefit at the expense of 
the poor. But in the future, the Holy One will summon the 
rich to judgment for having robbed and oppressed the 
poor." 297 The expression " future world " in this passage, 
may not necessarily mean the ideal era on this earth, but 
rather the world of the souls. Nevertheless, the statement as 
a whole registers the rabbinic protest against the injustices 
of the rich towards the poor, which are of daily occurrence 
in the present social and economic order, wherein one group 
of the people thrive at the expense of the suffering and oppres- 
sion of another group. It is problematic as to how much truth 
there is in the ancient proverb, that life is like a theatre 
where the worst men get the best places. But it is undoubtedly 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



53 



clear that it is right — it never can be other than right — that 
he who is upright and virtuous shall have a sufficiency, and 
that he who is worthy shall not perish from want. To be sure, 
in a system in which poverty does exist, the rabbis encourage 
and even earnestly urge almsgiving and charity. But the 
Jewish spiritual leaders always hoped and looked forward to 
the ideal time when conditions would radically be changed so 
that the scourge of poverty would be abolished. We should 
keep the distinction in mind between the actual present sys- 
tem, and that of the ideal era, especially when we read the 
following accusation against the Jews by one of the authors 
of a modern Utopia: " Almsgiving and begging are a devel- 
opment of a Jewish civilization, and date back to Josiah. 
Their system of almsgiving had ever been their greatest error. 
The poor were supposed to prevail everywhere." 29S 

Indeed, the principles of righteousness and justice, upon 
which the new social order in the ideal era will be rebuilt, will 
demand an equal footing economically for the poor. The satis- 
faction of that demand will mark the beginning of the func- 
tioning of the Kingdom of God, the Righteous Judge, on 
earth. 299 Peace, which is a necessary requirement for the 
establishment of the ideal social order on earth, can be attained 
only by the abolition of poverty. For, poverty, as the Talmud 
puts it, is worse than fifty plagues ; 30 ° or, as an old English 
saying has it, poverty breeds strife. As long as we have a 
system in which one man's profit is another man's loss, we will 
have no genuine peace, love, and brotherhood in the world. 
Moreover, the abolition of poverty will hasten to solve the 
problem of crime, the curse of modern social life, for there 
will be no temptation to rob or to murder. Every individual 
will be assured a comfortable home, food, and clothing. 

In fact, when the Kingdom of God on earth exists, every 
individual will be well provided materially, so that all will be 
made princes in the land. Although the population, due to 




54 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



large families, will be greatly increased, the standard of living 
will be very high, with the result that there will be no poor 
people at all. 301 Such base impulses as desire for luxury and 
love of money, will disappear. For the material means of 
happiness and comfort will exist on the earth as abundantly 
as the air for breathing. This change of the material condi- 
tions of the masses of the people will be especially noticeable 
through the new and attractive apparel and attire of every 
individual. The new and refreshing clothes worn daily by 
all will be a constant reminder of the new era of equality and 
universal justice. 302 

There will be many changes in nature itself in order to 
bring about the happiness and joy to all the members of the 
Utopia of the righteous. The land and the trees will yield, 
with less effort on the part of man, more frequently larger 
quantities and better fruit, agricultural produce, and many 
other necessities of life. 303 Wine and milk will be in abundance 
for all. This will be in accordance with the prophecy of Joel : 
" And it shall come to pass in that day, that the mountains shall 
drop down sweet wine, and the hills shall flow with milk" 304 
Unlike this era, — remark the rabbis — when wine is misused 
and thus causes suffering to mankind, in the ideal era that 
sweet liquid will bring joy and happiness to the people. 305 
Indeed, God Almighty has ordained wine, like all other prod- 
ucts of nature, for the great comfort of mankind, to be used 
moderately. 

Since, from a rabbinic viewpoint, large families are a bless- 
ing to the people, the rabbis do not fail to mention, nay, 
even greatly exaggerate, the increase of the birth-rate in their 
scheme of a Utopia of the righteous. One statement says that 
in the ideal era, each woman will give birth daily ! 306 Another 
view is, that, in the future, every Israelite will have as many 
children as the number of Israelites that have left Egypt 
during the Exodus ! 307 The spiritual leaders in Israel were 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



55 



apparently not concerned with the problem of an overcrowded 
earth, and with the apprehension of some modern scientists 
that in a thousand years there will not be one square yard of 
space for each person on earth. The underlying motive of the 
rabbinic predictions probably was the realization of the fact, 
that if a Utopia of Righteous should ever be established on 
earth, unusually large numbers of children of the small minor- 
ity of the upright and just, would have to outnumber the 
numerous wicked, unjust, and inferior types. 308 This answers 
the anti-Semitic attack on the part of a modern author of a 
Utopian scheme, when he states that " to increase and multi- 
ply beyond their resources has always been the fundamental 
desire of the Jews." 309 For, that yearning for a large progeny 
was a part of the rabbinic plan to establish a kingdom of the 
righteous. Compare the following passage in the Book of 
Enoch : " Destroy all wrong from the face of the earth and 
let every evil work come to an end ; and let the plant of right- 
eousness and truth appear. . . . And then shall all the right- 
eous escape, and shall live till they beget thousands of children, 
and all the days of their youth and their old age shall they com- 
plete in peace. And then shall the whole earth be tilled in 
righteousness, and shall all be planted with trees and be full 
of blessing." 310 

The great majority of the people will be farmers engaged 
in agriculture, and will obtain, without difficulty, their live- 
lihood from the products of the land, which products because 
of God's blessings, will be in abundance. 311 Everyone will 
acquire different kinds of land so that the product of the 
fields will satisfy the various needs of the individual. 312 The 
Universal State of the upright and just will thus enjoy 
abundance of food, especially fruit and other agricultural 
produce. 313 Agriculture will be a science in which all will be 
instructed. Consequently, in the new social order, every mem- 
ber of the ideal community of the righteous, will receive with- 



56 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



out great effort whatever necessary sustenance he may de- 
sire. 314 Because of the general abundance of food and suste- 
nance, there will always prevail in the community a spirit 
of joy, optimism, helpfulness, and brotherly love. 315 The 
relation between material abundance for all and the function- 
ing of righteousness in the Universal State is well described 
in the Book of Enoch: "And then shall the whole earth be 
tilled in righteousness and shall all be planted with trees and 
be full of blessing . . . and the vine which they plant thereon 
shall yield wine in abundance . . . and each measure of olives 
shall yield ten presses of oil. And cleanse thou the earth from 
all oppression, and from all unrighteousness, and from all 
sin, and from all godlessness. . . . And in those days I will 
open the store chambers of blessing which are in the heaven, 
so as to send them down upon the earth over the work and 
labour of the children of men. And truth and peace shall be 
associated together throughout all the days of the world and 
throughout all the generations of men." 31C 

Hence, in the ideal era, no one will lead a luxurious and 
spendthrift life because of inherited fortunes. One will enjoy 
and use only those things which he himself has earned through 
his own labor and efforts. In the words of the Psalmist, 
" when thou eatest the labour of thy hands, happy shalt thou 
be, and it shall be well with thee ", 317 No time will be spent by 
a part of the population in supplying useless luxuries. The laws 
and regulations of the new Universal State will, therefore, be 
few in number and seldom violated. Once an individual is 
working and doing constructive labor, he will enjoy fully the 
results of his toil and industry. In nowise will one reap the 
benefit or reward of the work of one's fellow man. The guid- 
ing rule will be that everyone is entitled to the fruit of his 
labor. 318 In the course of time when the new social order 
starts functioning, every member of the new State will work a 
minimum number of hours a day, in accordance with the par- 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



57 



ticular demands of the social life of the Universal State. 
There will be but few idlers. Most of the workers will not 
feel the bondage of their caste. There will always be steady 
employment, since production and distribution will be scien- 
tifically and universally regulated to meet the needs of a popu- 
lation which never indulges in war or greedy economic striv- 
ings. Production will be organized internationally and not 
nationally. Raw materials likewise will be controlled by a 
central authority so that the present waste will disappear. 

Gold will be of secondary importance in the new social and 
economic order. Eventually, all the friction, jealousy, quarrels, 
and misunderstandings that exist under the present system, 
will not be known in the ideal Messianic era. 319 The city 
of Jerusalem will possess most of the gold and precious stones 
of the world. That ideal city will be practically full of those 
metals and stones, so that the people of the world will realize 
the vanity and absurdity of wasting their lives in accumulating 
those imaginary valuables. 320 The deprecation of the impor- 
tance oi gold and its like, does not necessarily imply the in- 
troduction of the system of common ownership of property. 
The secondary importance given to gold in the new social 
order will be due to two main reasons. First, the equal dis- 
tribution of private property and other necessities of life will 
automatically depreciate the importance of gold and other 
luxuries. Under present conditions, money is harmful. Be- 
cause of bad economic distribution and organization, money 
is more easily obtained by wicked people than by righteous 
ones. The second reason is that the people will be trained and 
educated to differentiate between real, spiritual values and 
material values. 

Consequently, in the past, in rabbinic phraseology, only a 
few selected righteous, like the Patriarchs and Job, enjoyed 
material abundance and plenty, typical of the ideal era. 321 
But in the future, all the righteous will be well provided with 



58 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



59 



material abundance. 322 Their dwelling places will be beauti- 
ful. 323 For, to the righteous and upright will belong all the 
wealth, treasures, industrial gains, and all the other resources 
of the world; to the unrighteous will belong nothing. This 
will be in keeping with the prophecy of Isaiah : " And her 
gain and her hire shall be holiness to the Lord ; it shall not be 
treasured nor laid up ; for her gain shall be for them that dwell 
before the Lord, to eat their fill, and for stately clothing." 321 

Under such conditions a sturdy race of strong, healthy, tall, 
youthful, and handsome people will be raised. 325 The Holy 
One thus said : " In this era, some people are healthy and 
handsome, and others are not. But in the ideal era to come, 
all people will be handsome and praiseworthy/' This will be 
in accordance with the prophecy of Isaiah : " All that see 
them shall acknowledge them, that they are the seed which 
the Lord hath blessed." 326 Diseases and ill health which are 
such a heavy burden on the shoulders of mankind in the 
present era, will not be known in the future. 327 Physical de- 
fects, like dumbness, blindness, deafness, lameness, stam- 
mering, barrenness in women, and similar bodily imperfec- 
tions, will, likewise, not exist. The few unusual occurrences 
of such conditions will easily be cured. 328 Similarly, in the 
present era, women give birth in pain. But in the future, the 
prophecy of Isaiah will be realized : " Before she travailed, 
she brought forth ; before her pain came, she was delivered 
of a man-child." 329 

Concerning death in the future era, we find, in a few sources, 
a rabbinic statement to the effect that, in the future, the 
following prophecy of Isaiah will be fulfilled : " Lie will 
swallow up death for ever ; and the Lord God will wipe away 
tears from off all faces." 33 ° From additional remarks found, 
in at least two of these sources, we learn that that statement 
refers, not, as one might assume, to the future world, but 
rather to the ideal era on this earth. One passage reads sotne- 







what like this : " Originally when God created the world, 
there was no angel of death. When Adam and Eve committed 
the sin, however, death was decreed upon mankind. But when 
the Messiah comes, the Lord, in accordance with the prophecy 
of Isaiah, will swallow up death for ever." 331 The other pas- 
sage reads : " In this world, because of death, no one can be 
happy. But in the future, the Lord will swallow up death for 
ever. Then will the following prophecy be realized : ! And 
I will rejoice in Jerusalem, and joy in My people ; and the voice 
of weeping shall be no more heard in her, nor the voice of 
crying.' " S32 It is thus evident that some rabbis thought that, 
in the remote future, a time would come when death would be 
an unknown phenomenon among men on this earth. 333 

In other sources, however, we find a modified view, namely, 
that death will occur in the Messianic period ; but the span 
of life will be greatly prolonged. This will be in accordance 
with the other utterings of Isaiah concerning this matter: 
There shall be no more thence an infant of clays, nor an old 
man, that hath not filled his days ; for the youngest shall die 
a hundred years old." 334 People will thus, on the average, 
live much longer. 335 In addition, with the evil inclinations 
in man eradicated, the number of deaths that occur at present 
as a result of man's sins and misdoings, will be greatly de- 
creased. 33 * This will be true especially of deaths caused by 
murder, which will be unknown in the ideal era, when con- 
ditions that cause crime and sin will not exist. 337 

This modified view that, in the ideal era, the span of life 
will be prolonged, and that unusual and sudden deaths will not 
occur, is found also in a number of places in the Pseudepi- 
graphal writings : " And the days shall begin to grow many 
and increase amongst those children of men, till their days 
draw nigh to one thousand year. . . . And there shall be no 
old man. . . . For all shall be as children and youths. And 
all their days they shall complete and live in peace and in joy ; 



60 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



and there shall be no Satan nor any evil destroyer. For all 
their days shall be days of blessing and healing ,J ; 338 " And 
they shall live a long life on earth, such as thy fathers lived. 
And in their days shall no sorrow or plague or torment or 
calamity touch them. Then blessed I the God of glory, the 
Eternal King, who hath prepared such things for the right- 
eous, and hath created them and promised to give to them " ; 339 
" And no one shall again die untimely, nor shall any adversity 
suddenly befall 5 \ 340 In other words, almost all that is tragic 
in human life will be eliminated, and death will seldom come 
before old age. In one passage, the author of the Book of the 
Secrets of Enoch speaks, to be sure, about the eternal life 
of the righteous. But a careful study of that passage shows 
that that author has in mind, not the ideal era on earth, but 
rather the future world, or the realm of the soul. 341 

In any event, in the future ideal era on the earth, the happi- 
ness of man will be complete and perfect. 342 A number of 
reasons will account for that new state of man's happiness. 
The material needs and necessities of the individual will be 
readily obtained in abundance. 343 Children and young people 
will be immune from death. 344 Bodily imperfections and 
physical defects will be unknown. 345 Lastly, there will be an 
important cause for everlasting happiness of the people, since 
the Lord will dwell in Zion the ideal land of Israel, the ideal, 
righteous people, who, in the words of Zephaniah, shall not 
fear evil any more. 346 






LIBERTY AND SALVATION 





CHAPTER V 
LIBERTY AND SALVATION 

We shall now discuss the problem of the redemption and 
salvation of Israel, the people that will be instrumental in 
bringing about the Universal State founded upon genuine 
justice, righteousness, and universal peace. At the outset, 
it should be pointed out that the terms, redemption and sal- 
vation, have a radically different connotation from that which 
they have in Christian theology. As Abravanel has convinc- 
ingly proved, 347 Jewish redemption stands for the physical 
liberation and freedom of Israel. For, the people of Israel will 
attain the height of their spiritual functions and potentialities 
only through their attainment of material freedom and liberty. 
The problem of their spiritual development goes hand in 
hand with the problem of their physical safety and protection. 

The rabbis, for this reason, frequently picture the future 
salvation of Israel in terms of the experiences of that people 
preceding and during the Exodus from Egypt. 348 The follow- 
ing statement of R. Abin will illustrate well the rabbinic view 
concerning the relation between the physical freedom and 
the spiritual redemption of Israel : " Just as in the case of 
the lily : when heat comes upon it, the lily withers, but blooms 
again when the clew falls ; so is the case of Israel. As long as 
the shadow of the oppressors exists, Israel appears lifeless. 
But in the ideal era, when that shadow will have passed, 
Israel will thrive more and more. . . . Just as the lily is fit 
for adornment of the Sabbath and the holidays, so is Israel 
fit for the coming redemption." 349 R. Abin, the author of this 
beautiful parable, may have been the same one who had a 
sad personal experience with the government of his day. 350 In 

63 



64 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



any event, the underlying thought of the parable is evident. 
Israel will function spiritually and live up to their universal, 
moral and ethical responsibilities, only when they have ob- 
tained absolute physical freedom and liberty. 

It is for this very reason that the spiritual leaders in Israel 
frequently express their hope and yearning for the ideal 
era in which Israel will not be oppressed any longer. The 
Midrash thus remarks : " The Holy One, blessed be He, 
said to' Israel : In this era you are oppressed by various gov- 
ernments ; but in the era to come, I shall remove all govern- 
ments from you." 351 Samuel, the prominent Babylonian 
Arnora of the first generation, who was pessimistic concerning 
the immediate abolition of poverty during the Messianic 
period, held, nevertheless, that in that era servitude and op- 
pression would disappear from earth and that Israel would 
become liberated and free. 352 

Looking at the redemption and salvation of Israel from 
this point of view, one is in a position to understand why the 
rabbis stress the fact that that event will come only by way of 
Israel's return to Zion. 353 When the Lord will be reconciled 
with Zion, says the Midrash, He will have compassion first 
on Israel, the oppressed people. This will be in accordance 
with the following prophecy : " That the Lord hath founded 
Zion, and in her shall the afflicted of His people take ref- 
uge." 354 Again, the Shofar, announcing the freedom and lib- 
erty of the people, will be blown at the Temple in Jerusalem. 355 
For, Israel will be able to function spiritually and thus serve 
as an example for the rest of the world, only when they build 
up a Utopia, or a spiritual paradise on this earth, where they 
will be eternally safe and protected. 350 The ideal people of 
God will thus live and develop, both physically and spiritually, 
when these prophecies of Isaiah are realized : " How beautiful 
upon the mountains are the feet of the messenger of good 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



65 



tidings " 357 " O thou that tellest good tidings to Zion, get thee 
up into the high mountain '\ 35S 

The main purpose of the physical redemption of Israel will 
be to glorify the name of the Lord and thereby to bring about 
the Kingdom of God. The name of God will be universally 
sanctified and glorified, and His Kingdom become known, 
when a reunion of the exiled takes place at Jerusalem. 359 
When Israel is redeemed, the heavenly kingdom will be com- 
plete. 360 The glory and the light of the Lord will then be upon 
the people of Israel. 361 The redemption will be a testimony to 
God, that He is just and right and without iniquity. 362 Again, 
through Israel's physical salvation, God will be crowned King 
of His Kingdom, and the world will have learned to acknowl- 
edge Him as the one universal Lord. 363 In other words, the 
universal recognition of God as the righteous Lord, depends 
upon Israel's physical redemption; eventually God Himself 
will hasten the redemption and the salvation of Israel. 364 The 
Holy One thus says to Israel, My children, since My light is 
your light, and your light is My light, both of us will go and 
bring light unto Zion. 365 For, the name of the Lord will be 
sanctified, and His Kingdom established on earth, when Israel, 
the ideal righteous people, will be redeemed. 366 Hence, when 
Israel returns to Zion, God's Divine Presence will return 
with them. 367 The Holy One thus said to Israel, In the 
ideal era My Divine Presence will never depart from you, 368 

Second, the restoration of the ideal people on the ideal 
land will signify universal peace and brotherhood. Jerusalem 
will become the center of the free and liberated, universal 
Israel, because that city of God would be a living example of 
universal peace and brotherhood. This will be in keeping 
with the prophecy of Isaiah : " Behold, I will extend peace to 
her like a river." 369 The very act of the redemption will be 
accomplished through the united efforts of all the people of 
Israel For, Israel will be redeemed only when they shall 
have united/ 70 



66 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



Third, the redemption will mark the end of the rule of the 
wicked, and the beginning of the rule of the righteous in the 
world. It will usher in the new, ideal era in which the 
upright and just will prosper and the wicked and unright- 
eous will suffer. 371 Consequently, the redemption of Israel 
will signify the beginning .of the destruction of sin and wicked- 
ness on earth. 372 

Another purpose of Israel's redemption will be to give 
God's people the opportunity to lead a life in accordance with 
the Torah, the Word of God. Then will the prophecy of 
Isaiah be fulfilled : " Arise, shine, for the light is come, and 
the glory of the Lord is risen upon thee." 373 A free Israel 
will be in a position to worship God in Jerusalem, the center 
of the ideal world. This will be in keeping with the following 
prophecy : " And they shall come that were lost in the land 
of Assyria, and they that were dispersed in the land of Egypt ; 
and they shall worship the Lord in the holy mountain at 
Jerusalem." 374 

Consequently, as in the past, the Lord Himself will bring 
about the salvation of Israel. 375 Whether it will be Elijah, 
Messiah, or a special messenger, who will announce the good 
tidings of Israel's physical salvation and redemption, God 
will be the direct cause of that momentous event. 376 The 
people of Israel will then proclaim : " Lo, this is our God, 
for whom we waited, that He might save us. This is the 
Lord, for whom we waited. We will be glad and rejoice in 
His salvation." 377 

The redemption of Israel which will be so significant and 
momentous in the history of that people and of mankind in 
general, will be marked by a number of important character- 
istics. First, Israel's salvation will be permanent and eternal 
in nature, so that Israel may be secure against the kind of 
experiences which they suffered in the past : exile, suffering, 
humiliation, servitude, and disintegration. 378 The emblem 
of the new position of the ideal people will be light. 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



67 



The Exodus from Egypt, took place at night, and was, 
therefore, temporary; but the redemption ushering in the ideal 
era will take place in the light, which is stored up for the 
righteous. The restoration will thus be permanent and ever- 
lasting. 379 For, Israel, the ideal people, arc permanent and 
will never cease to exist. 380 In the words of Amos, they will 
be planted upon their land and they shall no more be plucked 
up out of their land. 381 When the ideal people shall have been 
redeemed, the redemption of the rest of the world will follow. 
In this way, the Kingdom of God will be established. 382 

Second, Israel's redemption will be universal. The exiled 
in the north and in the south, even those in the far corners 
of the earth will be gathered and re-united. 383 This redemption 
will, therefore, overshadow all previous redemptions of Israel ; 
and the prophecy of Jeremiah will be fulfilled : " Therefore, 
behold, the days come, saith the Lord, that it shall no more be 
said : ' As the Lord liveth, that brought up the children of 
Israel out of the land of Egypt ', but : ' As the Lord liveth, 
that brought up the children of Israel from the land of the 
north, and from all the countries whither He had driven 
them \" 3S * 

Third, nature itself will help to bring about the restora- 
tion of Israel, and will join the nations of the world in song, 
joy, and praise of the Lord for the redemption of His 
people. 385 The islands and the inhabitants thereof will sing 
a new song to- the Lord ; they will praise Him from the end 
of the earth, 386 The exiled themselves in their victorious and 
glorious march of salvation, will burst out in song and praise 
of God, on reaching the mountainous boundaries of the ideal 
land. 387 The prophecy of Isaiah will thus be realized : "And 
the ransomed of the Lord shall return, and come with singing 
unto Zion, and everlasting joy shall be upon their heads ; they 
shall obtain gladness and joy, and sorrow and sighing shall 
flee away." 388 
6 



68 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



How will that redemption be brought about? Will that 
momentous event take place suddenly, or will it be the result 
of the culmination of a series of spiritual and moral develop- 
ments of Israel and thus of mankind in general ? In rabbinic 
literature we find three different attitudes with regard to this 
question. The more conservative view seems to be that there 
is a designated time for the advent of the redemption. The 
redemption will take place at the appointed time, suddenly and 
unexpectedly, regardless, apparently, of the spiritual and 
moral conditions of the people. 389 The second view is that 
the advent of the redemption depends upon the intensity of 
the suffering which the world will undergo by virtue of their 
conduct. When living conditions become unbearable, when the 
oppression and suffering of Israel become intolerable, so that 
the people of Israel repent, pray, and are fearful of the Lord, 
the redemption of the ideal righteous people will, by compas- 
sion of God, take place. 390 The third and more progressive 
view is that the redemption will not be a sudden phenomenon, 
but rather a gradual development as a result of a number of 
moral and spiritual changes in Israel, and, consequently, in 
mankind in general. 391 Here are the more important changes 
mentioned in rabbinic sources, which will hasten that develop- 
ment. 

The first essential condition preparing the way for the 
salvation of the ideal people, is unity in universal Israel. 
There must be no dissension or lack of unity among the 
people of God. In fact, Ezekiel already, in picturing the ideal 
people in the coming ideal era, described the unity and brother- 
hood of the people, when he said that the people would be 
cleansed of their uncleanliness and saved from their sins only 
when they should have attained a state of perfect peace and 
unity. 392 The rabbis, in their usual way, put this significant 
prophecy into the mouth of Jacob, who, they say, uttered it 
when he was about to utter the testaments to his sons. 393 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



69 



Nevertheless, this interpretation indicates the rabbinic atti- 
tude towards the question of Israel's redemption. Perfect 
unity and brotherhood will have to precede the liberation of 
that people. 394 

Second, the people will have to train themselves in leading a 
life of justice and righteousness. This will be in accordance 
. with the prophecy of Isaiah : " Keep ye justice, and do right- 
eousness ; for My salvation is near to come, and My favour 
to be revealed/' 395 The cardinal principles of righteousness 
and justice will have to be applied not only in the every-day 
life of the individual in his relations to his fellow-man, but 
in the courts and in the administration of human affairs as 
well. 396 The following prophecy will then be realized : " Zion 
shall be redeemed with justice, and they that return of her with 
righteousness." 397 For, the righteous will be instrumental 
in the cause of the salvation of Israel. Indeed, the righteous 
in all ages are a living testimony to the eventual redemption 
of Israel, the ideal, righteous people, 398 The upright and just, 
preparing the way for the redemption, are imbued with loving 
kindness towards all peoples on earth. 399 

Third, the outstanding characteristic of the people of 
Israel of cultivating the habit of studying and learning for 
the sake of study — a characteristic not found among other 
peoples — will have to be encouraged and strengthened. Any 
one who studies the Torah for its own sake, says R. Levi, 
hastens the redemption of Israel. 400 The exiled will be 
gathered unto their destination, remarks R. Huna, only be- 
cause of the study of the Torah. 401 Another essential feature 
of the program of Israel's salvation, apparently contradicting 
the requirement just mentioned, but in reality supplementing 
it, is the observance of the Torah and its cardinal command- 
ments. 402 The emphasis laid both on study for its own sake 
and on the observance of the will of God, are deeply rooted 
in the Jewish philosophy of life, which stresses right con- 




70 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



duct of living, rather than dogma and faith. In the terminol- 
ogy of the rabbis, the Lord said to Israel, Just as I would 
not forget your redemption, so you should not forget the 
Torah. 403 

This brings us to the fourth point of the plan of Israel's 
redemption, and that is faith, or, to be more correct — faith- 
fulness. For, the Hebrew term " emunah ", does not connote 
" faith " in the Christian sense, but rather faithfulness, or 
trust in God. Furthermore, unlike Christianity, Judaism em- 
phasizes upright living rather than faith as a dogma. The 
Prophet Hosea, for instance, in speaking of Israel's be- 
throthal to God, mentions righteousness and justice first, 
and faithfulness last. 404 The rabbis, for this reason, stress 
always the importance of studying the Torah, the word of 
God, leading man to right conduct and a divine life, rather 
than blind faith and belief. 405 With regard to the question of 
Israel's redemption, the rabbinic view is that, in addition to 
the above requirements, an attitude of faithfulness is essential. 
The exiled will be redeemed as a reward of their faithful- 
ness. 406 In preparing the way for their redemption, Israel 
will have to display much faithfulness and trust in God. 
The prophecy of Hosea will then be realized: "And I will 
betroth thee unto Me for ever ; yea, I will betroth thee unto 
Me in righteousness, and in justice, and in loving kindness, 
and in compassion. And I will betroth thee unto Me in faith- 
fulness ; and thou shalt know the Lord." 407 

Fifth, Israel will have to lead a life of honesty, in the 
realm of the intellectual life, and thereby remind the world, 
especially the intelligent and intellectual leaders of the nations, 
that the lack of that virtue is one of the main causes of the 
woes and sufferings of mankind. The rabbis express this 
idea in their own, innocent, but honest, way ; " Whosoever 
reports a thing in the name of him that said it brings deliver- 
ance into the world." 408 In one rabbinic source, this state- 




THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



71 



ment is preceded by a supplementary saying : " Whosoever 
reports a thing in the name of a scholar who never said 
it, causes the Divine Presence of God to disappear from 
Israel." 409 In other words, this kind of dishonesty^ will not 
be known in the ideal era, when the Lord will cause His 
Divine Presence to dwell among all the members of the ideal, 
righteous people. 

Finally, the leaders in Israel will have to change their 
attitude toward the great masses of the people. They will 
have to be more sympathetic and less severe in discharging 
their duties, disregarding personal honor and self interest. 
Instead of looking for faults in the people, the scholars guid- 
ing the nation will have to stress the good qualities of the 
members of their communities. 410 





CHAPTER VI 

THE HOLY LAND 

. Simultaneous with the plan of a free, ideally righteous 
Israel, leading the world to an ideal life wherein the righteous 
would prosper and the wicked suffer, conies the essential re- 
quirement for a spiritual and holy Zion, guiding the other 
countries of the world in their spiritual development toward 
the realization of a World Utopia. It is with this view in mind 
that the rabbis allude often to the restoration of Israel to 
Palestine. When the Holy One will be about to renew His 
world, — remarks the Midrash — He will renew it from Zion ; — 
as it says, " That the mountain of the Lord's house shall be 
established as the top of the mountains ". 411 Again, the Holy 
One said : Zion will become a central meeting place of the 
whole world, — as it says, <c For out of Zion shall go forth the 
law, and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem ", 412 There- 
fore, when I redeem Zion and its exiled ones in accordance 
with the principles of justice and righteousness, they will then 
announce the new era from Zion. 413 

By stating that " God keeps Israel ", 414 we ordinarily un- 
derstand that the Lord guides Israel, through whom God's 
guidance will be extended to the rest of the world. Likewise, 
in saying that the Lord cares for the Holy Land and that 
" His eyes are always upon it ", 415 we mean that God cares 
for that land, through which God's care will be extended 
to all other lands. 410 Traditional Jews would, therefore, not 
disagree with the modern reformed Jews, when the latter 
state that the " call of the Jew " is supposed to be for the 
benefit of humanity, and not primarily for themselves. But 
the view of the reformed Jews that Palestine is not a part 

75 



76 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



of the scheme for the universal Utopia of mankind, is at 
variance with the very structure of the prophetic-rabbinic 
Utopia, namely, that of the ideal Israel in the ideal land. We 
should quote in this connection a statement of a modern non- 
Jewish author, in which he mentions Palestine as a plausible 
country wheref rom a universal Utopian renascence might take 
place : " It should not surprise us if the foundations of eutopia 
were established in ruined countries ; that is in countries where 
metropolitan civilization has collapsed and where all its paper 
prestige is no longer accepted at its proper value. It should 
not be altogether without precedent if such a eutopian rena- 
scence took place in Germany, in Austria, in Eussia ; and per- 
haps on another scale in, India and China and Palestine ; for 
all these regions are now face to face with realities which the 
' prosperous ' paperism of our metropolitan civilization has 
largely neglected." 417 

From this viewpoint, one is to understand the saying of 
R, Levi that in the ideal era Jerusalem will be like Palestine, 
and Palestine in turn will be like the whole world, and that, 
on frequent occasions, clouds will bring multitudes of people 
from the world over to worship in Jerusalem. 418 We need 
not attribute any prophetic qualities to that famous Palestinian 
Haggadist of the third century to interpret the term " clouds ", 
to mean " aeroplanes ", even though his statement is based on 
the prophecy of Isaiah : " Who are these that fly as a cloud, 
and as the doves to their cotes ? " 419 The underlying idea 
of the main saying is clear. Palestine will be to the world, 
what Jerusalem will be to Palestine — a spiritual center of the 
new ideal world. The moral and spiritual influence of the ideal 
Israel in the ideal land, will spread in the ideal era to the 
neighboring countries and 'thence to the whole wjorld. 420 
Israel will not insist that the other peoples subscribe to her 
doctrines, beliefs, or ways of life. The life of Israel, however, 
will be so ideal, so dignified, and so holy, that the world will 
not help but spontaneously follow the Jewish way of life. 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



77 



What revelation and the giving of the Torah in the past 
signified for the civilized world, the Holy Land will signify 
for the ideal world in the era to come. It will signal the 
ushering in of a reconstructed social order, an order estab- 
lished on the principles of genuine justice and righteousness. 
In the rabbinic terminology, " the destiny of Zion in the future 
will be comparable to that of the Torah in the past : just as in 
the case of the Torah, before Israel received it, the world was 
a lawless desert and became civilized when Israel received the 
Torah, so Zion, now a desert, will become in the ideal era the 
stronghold of the Holy One ", 421 This is likewise the force 
of the rabbinic view concerning Zion, that, in the ideal era, 
the prophecy of Zecharia will be fulfilled : " For I, saith the 
Lord, will be unto her a wall of fire round about, and I will 
be the glory in the midst of her." 422 Or, when they remark 
that the Lord Himself will comfort Zion. 423 For, only 
a Zion, in which God's Presence is universally recognized, 
will become the permanent spiritual center of the new recon- 
structed world. 424 The expression " God's Presence " is, of 
course, vague, especially when one recalls how the term 
" God " has, for the last two thousand years, been misused for 
sinister purposes by emperors, popes, and others. One thing, 
however, is clear. In the ideal land of God, there will be no 
room for the wicked. It will be a" country of righteous. The 
unrighteous will be looked for, but not one of them will be 
found. 425 

Thus, in the future era, the Holy One will take hold of 
the ends of the land, and will shake the wicked with their 
defilements out of it, just as when one takes hold of a garment 
and shakes out of it all that it contains. 426 Indeed, the test 
of Zion's claim for spiritual superiority will be the annihilation 
of injustice and wickedness from the earth. The Lord will 
dwell in Zion only when unrighteousness and injustice will 
have disappeared from mankind. 427 




78 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



Furthermore, Zion will be the world's center of learning, 
knowledge, and of everlasting material and spiritual bliss. 428 
It will be a model country of plenty, producing the best fruit, 
grain, fish, fowls, vines and other necessities, which make life 
happy and wholesome; no family will have any difficulty in 
obtaining its sustenance. 429 The natural resources of Palestine 
will be marvelously developed, and the land artistically beau- 
tified. In the words of Isaiah, " every valley shall be lifted 
up, and every mountain and hill shall be made low ; and the 
rugged shall be made level, and the rough places a plain " ; 430 
" And there shall be upon every lofty mountain, and upon 
every high hill, streams and watercourses " ; 431 " I will open 
rivers on the high hills, and fountains in the midst of the 
valleys ; I will make the wilderness a pool of water, and the 
dry land springs of water J \ 432 The boundaries of the land 
will be enlarged and widened, and its immediate spiritual, 
ethical, and moral influences on the neighboring countries 
will be evident and very great. 433 

The joy and gladness that will prevail in the ideal land, 
alluded to in the marriage benediction, is fully described in 
Jeremiah : " Yet again there shall be heard in this place . . . 
the voice of joy and the voice of gladness, the voice of the 
bridegroom and the voice of the bride, the voice of them that 
say : ' Give thanks to the Lord of hosts, for the Lord is 
good, for His mercy endureth for ever V 434 This will be 
likewise in accordance with the prophecy of Isaiah : " For the 
Lord hath comforted Zion; he hath comforted all her waste 
places, and hath made her wilderness like Eden, and her desert 
like the garden of the Lord ; joy and gladness shall be found 
therein, thanksgiving, and the voice of melody. " 43D 

It is clear that Zion, the ideal country of the world, will be 
in eternal possession of Israel, the everlasting ideal people. 436 
These two, Israel and Zion, will go hand in hand, thereby 
showing the way of eternal bliss and happiness to a suffer- 




THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



79 



ing humanity. 437 This will be in keeping with the following 
prophecies : " And I will set Mine eyes upon them for good, 
and I will bring them back to this land ; and I will build them, 
and not pull them down ; and I will plant them, and not pluck 
them up " ; 43S " And I will plant them upon their land, and 
they shall no more be plucked up out of their land which I 
have given them ". 439 Consequently, the Kingdom of God will 
be established on earth. 440 

For, as far as Israel will be concerned, Zion will serve a 
double purpose. It will serve as a refuge for the exiled who 
will be gathered in by its outstretched arms. God will thus 
comfort Israel in their new, yet old, homeland. 441 Important 
and significant as that hospitality of Zion will be, it will be 
only transitory in nature, preparing the way for Israel's 
permanent and real mission. With the spontaneous aid of all 
the nations of the earth, the ideal people will establish them- 
selves in that land to lead a divine and godly life ; the Divine 
Presence will then dwell among them. 442 The Holy One thus 
says to Israel : Since My light is your light, and your light 
is Mine, let us go together and bring light unto Zion. 443 
Hence, in the future, when the Divine Presence returns to 
Zion, the Lord will be revealed in His glory to all Israel, 
as it says : " For they shall see, eye to eye, the Lord return- 
ing to Zion." 444 It is for this reason, that the rabbis, in pic- 
turing the ideal Palestine for Israel as described in the Utopia 
of the last chapter of Ezekiel, remind us that the Holy One 
Himself will do the distributing of the land. 445 Whether the 
rabbinic description and ideology of that Utopian State ex- 
actly agree with the picture given in Ezekiel is a different 
problem. But no one would question the fact that Ezekiel's 
prophecy concerning the ideal Jerusalem, mentioned in the 
last verse of that chapter, might be applied as well to the 
rabbinic dream of an ideal Zion: And the name of the city 
from that day shall be, " The Lord is there ", 446 




CHAPTER VII 
THE HOLY CITY 

We are now in a position to discuss the nature of the ideal 
city of Jerusalem as pictured in the rabbinic Utopia. The 
rebuilding of that city is a part of the plan of the ideal 
country, Zion. Jerusalem will be the capital of Zion. What 
Zion will mean to the world, Jerusalem will mean to Zion. 
In Jewish liturgy, therefore, prayers for both, as a rule, 
follow each other. 447 

If Zion, the spiritual and moral center of the world, is to 
be built up as a model country of divine and godly living, 
how much more so should Jerusalem be so built, the city 
of God and the capital of Zion ! The rabbis, therefore, in fol- 
lowing the footsteps of the prophets, allude frequently to 
the new Jerusalem as the everlasting city to be built and com- 
forted by God, the universal Lord ; as the seat of the Lord, 
which is to be recognized as such by all the nations of the 
earth ; as the divine light of the world ; as the habitation of 
the Divine Presence; as the mountain of the Lord's house; 
and, finally, as the city, the name of which shall be, " The 
Lord is there ", or, " The city of the Lord ". 448 Jerusalem 
is personified as the bride, waiting for the arrival of God, her 
bridegroom. Thus, by being told that merely the sons and 
daughters of Israel are returning to her, she would not be 
entirely happy. Her happiness and gladness will, however, 
be complete when she is informed of the coming of the King 
Himself. 449 According to R. Johanan, therefore, the Holy 
One will come first to the ideal Jerusalem in Zion, and after- 
wards to the heavenly Jerusalem. 400 

7 83 



84 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 




The city of Jerusalem, furthermore, will be. a model city, 
in which God's righteousness will function. This will be in 
keeping with the prophecy of Zephaniah : " The Lord who 
is righteous is in the midst of her ; He will not do unrighteous- 
ness. Every morning doth He bring His right to light ; it 
faileth not." 451 The horns, the emblem of strength and 
glory of the righteous, shall thus be lifted up at Jerusalem. 452 
That ideal city will become a central place of judgment, 
through which the upright and just will be guided to everlast- 
ing bliss and happiness, and the unrighteous will be led to 
their doom. Consequently, the universal Kingdom of God, or 
the Utopia of the righteous, will be ushered in by the right- 
eous at Jerusalem. 453 Since the city will be the capital of the 
land of the righteous, its inhabitants will be a selected, group 
of upright and just. In the terminology of R. Johanan, the 
Jerusalem of the present era, any one may enter; but the 
Jerusalem of the ideal era, only those who will be invited 
will be permitted to enter. 454 Eventually, it will become the 
welcome home of the ideal Israel 455 In the future, the Lord 
will thus bless Israel, as it says: The Lord bless thee, O 
habitation of righteousness, O mountain of holiness. 456 

The leadership in Jerusalem will likewise be enhanced, in 
accordance with the prophecy of Isaiah : " I will also make 
thy officers peace, and righteousness thy magistrates." 457 
The Lord will grant the city of Jerusalem its full and real 
freedom. 458 Hence, the ideal city will, in addition to holi- 
ness and righteousness, signify peace, Jerusalem will be com- 
forted through the peace of her people. 459 " The heart of the 
fathers shall be turned to the children, and the heart of the 
children to their fathers." 4G0 That ideal city will cause all 
Israel, the holy people, to be comrades and genuine friends. 461 

With these three qualifications of holiness, righteousness, 
and peace, attained, Jerusalem will be the world's center of 
joy and happiness. Abominations and sensuality will not 




THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



85 



exist in that community. 462 The Lord, likewise, will, in 
the words of Isaiah, "swallow up death for ever; and the 
Lord God will wipe away tears from off all faces ". 463 The 
prophecy of Zechariah will then be fulfilled : " There shall 
yet old men and old women sit in the broad places of Jeru- 
salem, every man with his staff in his hand for every age. 
And the broad places of the city shall be full of boys and girls 
playing in the broad places thereof." 464 Hence, when the 
Lord rebuilds Jerusalem, He will bring unto her all joy and 
gladness. 465 

For Jerusalem, in addition, will be a city of plenty ; it will 
contain the best healing water, suited for bringing forth fish 
and for aiding the land to bring forth the best fruit in abund- 
ance; diseases and physical deformities will thereby be greatly 
decreased. 466 That ideal city will also possess the precious 
stones and pearls in abundance. 467 This will have a favorable 
influence of peace among men. By visiting Jerusalem, where 
these valuables will be lying, spread all over the roads and 
streets of the city, people, greedy and quarrelsome because 
of their desire to acquire wealth, will now realize the pettiness 
of their desires, and the unreasonableness of their enmities. 468 
Furthermore, Jerusalem will be widened, and beautified in its 
physical appearance, so that the whole world will praise her 
f or her beauty and attractiveness. 460 According to R. Johanan, 
who was the greatest of the rabbinic dreamers of an ideal 
Jerusalem, the following prophecy of Isaiah refers to the 
Jerusalem of the future : " I will plant in the wilderness the 
cedar, the acacia-tree, and the myrtle, and the oil-tree ; I will 
set in the desert the cypress, the plane-tree, and the larch 
together." 47 ° 

Jerusalem will, moreover, become the metropolis of the 
world. The highways of all the countries in the world will 
lead directly to that city of material and spiritual bliss. 471 In 
the terminology of the author of one of the Sibylline Books, 




I 



86 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



87 



Jerusalem will be set as the jewel of the world. 472 In keeping 
with the prophecy of Jeremiah, " all the nations shall be 
gathered unto it, to the name of the Lord, to Jerusalem J \ 473 
Representatives of all the different races in the world will 
be gathered together there, demonstrating in their brotherly 
and friendly intercourse, the only true spirit of love and 
democracy. The non-Jewish peoples beholding the spiritual 
glories and accomplishments of Israel at Jerusalem, will 
eventually turn to follow the ideal righteous people in leading 
the world into the path of righteousness. Isaiah's prophecy 
will thus be realized : " And nations shall walk at thy light, 
and kings at the brightness of thy rising." 474 All those who 
have missed the presence of Jerusalem, and have mourned 
for her, even God, the angels, the celestial bodies, heaven and 
earth, and other natural objects in the world, as well as the 
righteous of the world — they all will share in the joy of the 
rebuilt city. 475 

When all the above mentioned conditions of an ideal Jeru- 
salem are fulfilled, the Kingdom of God on earth will be 
established. 476 For, the name of God will be universally 
sanctified, only when the exiled will have been gathered unto 
a rebuilt Jerusalem. 477 It is for this reason that the rabbinic 
sources allude frequently to the gathering of the exiled into 
the new Jerusalem. 478 Israel thus says : " As the Kingdom 
of the Holy One will be about to appear in this world, I shall 
go to Jerusalem." 479 The Lord will, therefore, cause His 
Divine Presence to dwell among Israel in the new Jerusalem, 
in order to make known to the whole world the universal, 
divine purpose of the ideal people of Israel. 480 Since the habi- 
tation of Israel in the New Jerusalem is essential for the 
functioning of the Kingdom of God, Israel will dwell there 
safely, everlastingly, and happily. They will never again be 
uprooted from the ideal city of God. 481 For, Jerusalem, like 
Zion, was selected by God for that very purpose of estab- 
lishing there His Kingdom on earth. 482 



Next to the ideal Jerusalem described in the last chapter 
of Ezekiel, we find in another pre-rabbinic source a beautiful 
description of the ideal city in the ideal world, which is more 
outspoken in the universal character of the ideology of the 
New Jerusalem than Ezekiel's description. Wc refer to the 
song of the new Jerusalem as found in the Book of Tobit, 
one of the oldest Apocryphal writings. We give here the 
version of the song as rendered by Charles : 

I exalt my God, and my soul shall rejoice in 
the King of Heaven ; 

Of his greatness let all men tell, 

And let them give him thanks in Jerusalem. 

O Jerusalem, thou holy city ! he will chastise 
thee for the works of thy hands, 

And will again have mercy on the sons of the 
righteous. 

Give thanks to the Lord with goodness, and 
bless the everlasting King, 

That thy tabernacle may be builded in thee 
again with joy, 

And that he may make glad in thee all that 
are captives, 

And love in thee all that are miserable and all 
the generations of eternity. 

A bright light shall shine unto all the ends 

of the earth ; 

Many nations shall come from afar, 

And the inhabitants of the utmost ends of the 

earth unto thy holy name ; 

With their gifts also in their hands unto the 
King of heaven, 



■ 



88 THE JEWISH UTOPIA 

Generations of generations shall utter rejoic- 
ing in thee, 

And thy name that is elect unto the genera- 
tions of eternity. 

Cursed shall be all they that shall speak a 
hard word ; 

Cursed shall be all they that demolish thee, 
And throw down thy walls ; 

And all they that overthrow thy towers, 
And set on fire thy habitations ; 
But blessed shall be all they that fear thee 
for ever. 

Then go and be exceeding glad for the sons 
of the righteous : 

For they all shall be gathered together, 
And bless the everlasting Lord. 

Blessed shall they be that love thee ; 

And blessed shall they be 

That shall rejoice for thy peace: 

And blessed shall be all the men 
That shall sorrow for thee 
For all thy chastisements: 

Because they shall rejoice in thee 
And shall see all thy joy for ever. 

My soul doth bless the Lord the great King ; 
For Jerusalem shall be builded again as his 
house unto all the ages. 

Happy shall I be if the remnant of my seed 
comes to see thy glory 

And give thanks unto the King of heaven. 



( 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 

And the gates of Jerusalem shall be builded 
with sapphire and emerald, 

And all thy walls with precious stone. 

The towers of Jerusalem shall be builded with 
gold, 

And their battlements with pure gold. 

The streets of Jerusalem shall be paved 
With carbuncle and stones of Ophir. 

And the gates of Jerusalem shall utter hymns 
of gladness 

And all her houses shall say, Halleluiah. 483 



89 










A SPIRITUAL CENTER 


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1 

1 1 '' 








< 






< 


• 


1 



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CHAPTER VIII 

A SPIRITUAL CENTER 

. Alongside the dream of an ideal Jerusalem in an ideal Zion, 
we frequently find in rabbinic literature the hope and the 
yearning for the rebuilding of the Temple at Jerusalem in the 
ideal era to come. 484 According to one view, the rebuilding of 
the Temple will take place even before the establishment of 
the rule of the house of David. 485 A number of sources indi- 
cate that many ceremonies that were performed at the First 
Temple will also be performed at the Temple of the future. 486 

With regard to animal sacrifices proper, in the Temple of 
the future era, however, we find three distinct views scattered 
throughout rabbinic literature. First, there is the more con- 
servative view that sacrifices will take place in that Temple 
just as they were performed in the first two Temples. 487 The 
Jewish prayer-book, too, contains numerous prayers for the 
rebuilding of the sanctuary at Jerusalem, so that sacrifices 
may be offered in the future as they were in the past. Here 
is one typical prayer of that kind, used for the additional 
service for New Year : " Lead us with exultation unto Zion 
thy city, and unto Jerusalem the place of thy sanctuary with 
everlasting joy; and there we will prepare before thee the 
offerings that are obligatory for us, as is commanded us in 
thy Law through the hand of Moses thy servant, from the 
mouth of thy glory." 48s 

Another view, which is more progressive in nature, is that 
all animal sacrifices, with the exception of the thank-offering, 
will cease. 489 This attitude is probably based on the assumption 
that, in the ideal era, man will be perfect, and that evil inclina- 
tions in man causing him to sin will be no more. Since most 

93 




94 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



of the sacrifices come as an atonement for the sins and short- 
comings of mortals, there will be no room for such sacrifices 
in the ideal state of social justice and righteousness, when all 
men will lead an ideal and godly life. There will be, however, 
a demand, on the part of the people, for a thank-offering, as 
an outlet for their expression of gratitude to God for the 
abundance and happiness in which a happy humanity will 
equally share. It may be of historical interest to note that 
the author of this theory is a non-Judaean Tanna by the name 
of R. Menahem ish Gallia — or according to one reading Galil. 
He was thus either a Galatian of Asia Minor, or a Galilean, 
Another lenient view of his is recorded somewhere else in 
connection with a law about the Sabbath. 490 A similar view 
concerning animal sacrifices in the future era, is implied in a 
passage found in one of the Sibylline Books : " And from 
every land they shall bring frankincense and gifts to the 
house of the great God; and there shall be no other house 
for men even in future generations to know but only that 
which He has given to faithful men to honour." 491 

The third theory, found in rabbinic literature, concerning 
animal sacrifices in the Temple of the future, is the radical 
view that there will be no sacrifices whatever, and that right- 
eousness and justice in action, will take the place of sacri- 
fices. 492 Indeed, all the other characteristics and symbolic 
significances, ascribed by the rabbis to the Temple in the ideal 
era, would seem to uphold this view concerning animal sacri- 
fices. The Temple, above all, will signify the Kingdom of 
God on earth. 493 The Lord Himself will build the everlasting 
Temple, in which He will cause His Divine Presence to dwell 
eternally, and to which all the worshippers of the world will 
direct their prayers. 494 The name of God will be sanctified in 
the world, when His sanctuary will be established at Jeru- 
salem. 406 The Holy One will renew His world from Zion, 
when, in the words of Isaiah, " the mountain of the Lord's 




THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



95 



house shall be established as the top of the mountains ". 495a 
The Temple will, therefore, become the spiritual center of all 
the peoples on earth, so that it will be the focus of spiritual 
life for all the nations in the world. Isaiah's prophecy will 
then be fulfilled: "And many peoples shall go and say: 
' Come ye, and let us go to the mountain of the Lord, to the 
.house of the God of Jacob; and He will teach us of His 
ways, and we will walk in His paths/ " 496 

The ideal house of God will likewise symbolize the end of 
strife and wars in the world, and the establishment of genu- 
ine, universal peace : " And the Lord of the sheep rejoiced 
with great joy because they were all good and had returned 
to His house. And I saw till they laid down that sword . . . 
and they brought it back into the house, and it was sealed 
before the presence of the Lord, and all the sheep were in- 
vited into that house, but it held them not. . . . And I saw 
that that house was large and broad and very full." 497 

The Temple, furthermore, will signify the rule of the 
righteous in the world, and the disappearance of the wicked. 498 
That spiritual center will be built only when the unrighteous 
nations will reign no more. 498a One of the morning prayers 
thus reads : " Gather our scattered ones from the four 
corners of the earth. Let them that go stray be judged ac- 
cording to thy will. . . . Let the righteous rejoice in the 
rebuilding of thy city, and in the establishment of thy temple, 
and in the flourishing of the horn of David thy servant, 
and in the clear-shining light of the son of Jesse, thine 
anointed." 499 Indeed, the test of the new righteous world 
will be the renewed spiritual Temple. An age in which 
society functions in righteousness, will have also a univeral 
spiritual center, a symbol of the new era of righteousness, 500 
That Temple will be the pride and glory of the righteous. 601 

The Temple will also be the seat of genuine justice. 502 The 
prophecy of Isaiah will thus be realized : " Therefore thus 



96 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



saith the Lord God : Behold, I lay in Zion for a foundation 
a stone, a tried stone, a costly corner-stone of sure founda- 
tion. . . . And I will make justice the line, and righteousness 
the plummet." 503 

Similarly, the Lord will re-create the new Israel at the 
ideal Temple. 504 Israel, the ideal people of justice and right- 
eousness, will have her spiritual center at the Temple, through 
which they will promulgate and proclaim the justice and 
righteousness, the glory and greatness, of the Lord. 605 The 
ideal Temple in the ideal era will consequently be the spiritual 
light of the whole world, disseminating the glory of God, 
and the blessings of life, throughout all the nations of the 
earth. 506 

The magnificent and exquisite structure of the new Temple 
will be surrounded by lakes and fruitful trees, as pictured in 
the forty-seventh chapter of Ezekiel. 507 The ideal Temple 
in an ideal Jerusalem, the capital of an ideal Palestine, will 
thus be the source of universal joy, blessings, goodness, glad- 
ness, and happiness. 508 References to the ideal Temple are also 
found in the Pseudepigraphal literature. Here is a striking 
statement as found in the Book of Jubilees : " For the Lord 
has four places on the earth, the Garden of Eden, and the 
Mount of the East, and this mountain on which thou art 
this day, Mount Sinai, and Mount Zion which will be sancti- 
fied in the new creation for a sanctification of the earth; 
through it will the earth be sanctified from all its guilt and 
its uncleanness throughout the generations of the world." 500 
A similar description of the structure and purpose of the 
ideal Temple is found in one of the Sibylline Books : " And. 
made a temple exceeding fair in its fair sanctuary, and fash- 
ioned it in size of many furlongs, with a giant tower touching 
the very clouds and seen of all, so that all the faithful and all 
the righteous may see the glory of the invisible God, the vision 
of delight. East and West have hymned forth the glory of 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



97 



God ; for no longer are wretched mortals beset with deeds of 
shame, adulteries and unnatural passions for boys, murder 
and tumult, but rivalry is fair among all." 510 

With regard to the problem of the priests and the priest- 
hood in the ideal Temple, it should be stated that that question 
resembles the problem of sacrifices of animals in the Temple 
of the future. There are two distinct tendencies recorded in 
rabbinic literature, concerning the question of the priesthood. 
We find, on the one hand, that that institution will be entrusted 
to the hands of the descendants of Aaron, the High Priest, 
whose main functions will- be to act as custodians of the 
ceremonial services at the Temple. 511 The Levites, likewise, 
will, with a few minor changes in the songs and in the musical 
instruments, continue their duties in accordance with tra- 
dition. 512 

A number of rabbinic sources, on the other hand, record 
protests against the abuses of the priesthood in the past, and 
picture that institution in the future ideal era, as one of 
scholarship, learning, moral integrity, cleanliness, and true 
service of God. When R, Eliezer ben Jose ha-Gelili, a Tanna 
of the second century, and one of R. Akiba's later disciples, 
was describing the ideal man of the future, he remarked: 
" When the Torah speaks of Israel as a kingdom of priests, 
we might infer that the ideal Israel will be a class of idlers. 
The verse, therefore, concludes : 'And a holy nation/ " 513 
This remark insinuates that the priesthood in the past was far 
from being holy, and that the ideal man in the future will, 
therefore, be far superior, both morally and spiritually. 514 
Another rabbinic charge against the priesthood is that the 
priests neglected their studies of the Torah. 515 A priest, there- 
fore, who shares the material benefits of the priesthood, but 
is no scholar, will not be acceptable in the ideal era as a mem- 
ber of the priesthood. This is in accordance with Malachi's 
description of the ideal priest : " For the priest's lips should 



98 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



keep knowledge, and they should seek the law at his mouth ; 
for he is the messenger of the Lord of hosts." 51G 

When the priesthood is morally corrupt, and the priests do 
not live up to the spiritual standard as formulated by Malachi, 
spiritual and moral chaos exists, the conditions of which are 
described in Job: "A land of thick darkness, as darkness 
itself ; a land of the shadow of death, without any order, and 
where the light is as darkness." 517 It is perhaps for this 
reason that the rabbis state, that, in the present era, God 
commanded Aaron and his sons, or the tribe of Levi, to bless 
Israel. But in the ideal era, the Lord Himself will bless the 
ideal people, 518 Similarly, the Midrash remarks, in the past, 
the Israelites were declared to be clean or unclean by the 
priests. But in the future, the Holy One Himself will cleanse 
the people ; — as it says, " And I will sprinkle clean water upon 
you, and ye shall be clean; from all your uncleanness, and 
from all your idols, will I cleanse you." 519 

The motto of the spiritual leader in the ideal era of genuine 
justice and righteousness will be, in the words of Abraham 
Lincoln : " I must stand with anybody that stands right ; 
stand with him while he is right, and part with him when he 
goes wrong," 519a It goes without saying that with spiritual 
leaders of such a high moral standard, there will be no preach- 
ing of the Doctor Jekyll and Mr. Hyde type, of which some 
of our preachers have been accused in the present era. In the 
terminology of the Midrash, the priest of the future will have 
to be in an absolute state of purity and cleanliness. 520 In 
short, he will have to be a real minister of the universal 
God. 521 

Worship and prayer, to be sure, will constitute the most 
important part of the service in the spiritual center in the era 
to come. 522 Thus, according to R, Johanan, in the prophetic 
message of Zephaniah, " For then will I turn to the peoples 
a pure language, that they may all call upon the name of 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



99 



the Lord, to serve Him with one consent ", 523 the expression 
" to serve Him " connotes prayer to God. 524 The prayers in 
that era will be formulated, however, on a spiritual, and thus 
on a sound, basis. Since the general conditions of mankind, 
both material and spiritual, will be radically changed for the 
better, so that the wicked and suffering will have entirely dis- 
appeared from the earth, and all the righteous will prosper 
and share equally in the happiness of the world, the prayers 
will consist mainly of songs and of praises to the Lord for 
His goodness and for His wonderful acts of justice and 
righteousness in the world. 526 

In other words, religious worship, and religion in general, 
will be more jubilant than solemn. In the phraseology of the 
Midrash, " in this era we praise the Lord both for the good 
and for the bad. But in the era to come, we will praise Him 
only for the good. For, in that era, there will be no suffer- 
ing ", B26 Public worship at the center of the new Universal 
State will, furthermore, be of such a general nature that all 
people will be able to worship together. The following prophe- 
cies will then be realized : u And it shall come to pass that, 
before they call, I will answer ; and while they are yet speaking 
I will hear " ; 527 " He will surely be gracious unto thee at 
the voice of thy cry; when lie shall hear, Lie will answer 
thee " ; 52S He shall call upon Me, and I will answer him." 629 



A NEW WORLD 






■ 



CHAPTER IX 
A NEW WORLD 

The spiritual life of the people will be greatly enhanced 
and augmented. In the language of the rabbis, the evil in- 
clinations in man will be eradicated. 530 A new spirit will 
be infused into man. The prophecy of Ezekiel will then 
become a fact : " A new heart also will I give you, and a 
new spirit will I put within you; and I will take away the 
stony heart out of your flesh, and I will give you a heart of 
flesh." 53t Suffering, mortality, crime and sensual living will 
then be greatly reduced, and eventually abolished. 532 As long 
as the world is ruled by evil inclinations, remarks the Midrash, 
thick darkness and the shadow of death will prevail in human 
life. But as soon as those evil inclinations are eradicated, 
there will be no more darkness in the world. 533 

Man, with his new, holy spirit, will become a new crea- 
ture. 534 People, instead of being envious and covetous, will 
gradually learn to despise the material things which do not 
belong to them. 535 A better understanding between the old 
generation and the new will then exist. 536 For, in the present 
era, man, in rabbinic terminology, possesses two inclinations, 
or two hearts, a good one and a bad one. But, in the era to 
come, there will be no evil inclinations. Man will possess only 
the good inclination. 537 

Furthermore, with the evil inclinations in man removed, 
all the members of the human race will be in a position to have 
God's Divine Presence dwell among them. All people will 
be " taught of the Lord ". Knowledge and culture, especially 
the knowledge of God, will be widespread, universal, and ever- 
lasting, so that not much teaching will be required. The fol- 

103 



104 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



105 



lowing prophecies will then be fulfilled : " For the earth shall 
be full of the knowledge of the Lord, as the waters cover the 
sea " ; 538 " And they shall teach no more every man his neigh- 
bour, and every man his brother, saying : l Know the Lord ' ; 
for they shall all know Me, from the least of them unto the 
greatest of them ". 5S0 In the phraseology of the rabbis, the 
Holy One Himself will teach His law to every individual, so 
that knowledge and learning will be universal and ever- 
lasting. 540 

The society founded upon this perfect education will in- 
augurate the era of happiness and of perfection of man. Once 
real happiness is produced on earth, there will be no fear of 
the non-attainment of happiness hereafter. Tha aim of edu- 
cation will be to furnish masses of capable and energetic 
citizens for the new Universal State, able and willing to dis- 
charge their proper obligations to their fellow-men and thus 
help bring about the Kingdom of God. In the words of the 
author of the Book of Jubilees, " in those days the children 
shall begin to study the laws, and to seek the commandments, 
and to return to the path of righteousness ", 541 

In the absence of war, intellectual pursuits will save men 
from boredom. The Universal State will have a unified 
philosophic purpose and a unified system of social values. 
Education will thus be adopted to the social purpose of the 
State. Moreover, in the era to come, when man will not be 
subject any longer to the whims of temptation and evil in- 
clinations, the nations on earth will be in a position to unite 
for one supreme purpose, namely, to call, in the words of 
Zephaniah, upon the name of the Lord, to serve Him with 
one consent, 542 

This new state of the nature of man, together with the 
general disappearance of unrighteousness and wickedness from 
the social life of mankind, will then prepare the way for 
the ushering in of the ideal Messianic period. 543 The Word 



' 



of God will thus be guiding the destiny of mankind. 544 Genu- 
ine wisdom, imbued with the spirit of God, will be studied 
systematically and universally. It will characterize the general 
spirit of the new age. 545 The new spirit of learning and teach- 
ing, of acquiring and spreading knowledge, will be in direct 
contrast to the spirit of demoralization, bigotry, and prejudice, 
that is so characteristic of the present era. 546 The members 
of the new social order will occupy themselves chiefly with 
intellectual and cultural activities. 

The classical utterance of Amos will then be realized : " Be- 
hold, the days come, saith the Lord God, that I will send 
a famine in the land, not a famine of bread, nor a thirst for 
water, but of hearing the words of the Lord." 54T That 
prophecy, of course, may be also interpreted in accordance 
with the opposite meaning, namely, that people will be so 
degraded and low in their learning and culture, that the lack 
of those qualities will be universally evident. In fact, the next 
verse in Amos seems to support this interpretation : " And 
they shall wander from sea to sea, and from the north even to 
the east ; they shall run to and fro to seek the word of the 
Lord, and shall not find it." 548 One rabbinic passage, like- 
wise, seems to have understood the prophecy of Amos in that 
sense, when it states : " In the present era, the guilty and 
corrupt governments are thirsty for the divine spirit and for 
the law, as it is mentioned in the prophecy of Amos. But in the 
ideal era, the words of Isaiah will be fulfilled: For I will 
pour water upon the thirsty." 540 

In any event, the rabbinic view of: the spiritual life in the 
ideal era is clear. It will be a period in which learning, knowl- 
edge, and the words of God will be universally applied to the 
conduct and life of every individual, both in the relation of 
man to God, and of man to man. It was perhaps for this 
reason that the Kaddish prayer which includes the formula, 
" In the world that will in the future be renewed ", was per- 






106 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



mitted to be said only after studying some phase of the Torah, 
or, according to another version, only at the death of a 
scholar. 550 The purpose was to signify the spiritual meaning 
of that hope and yearning for the ideal era, namely, an era 
in which man would live according to the true word of God. 
This is likewise the force of the following Midrash: The 
Holy One said to the elders : In the present era, you have 
not seen the glory of the Torah. But in the era to come, you 
will be glorified through the Torah, — as it says, " Then the 
moon shall be confounded, and the sun ashamed; for the 
Lord of hosts will reign in Mount Zion, and in Jerusalem, and 
before His elders shall be Glory ". 551 

Under those ideal conditions, man naturally will, in the 
words of Ezekiel, walk in God's statutes, and will keep the 
ordinances of the Lord, and do them. 552 The Torah with 
its fundamental ordinances, to be sure, will function in the 
ideal era to come. The traditional teachings of Israel will 
still be the guiding light of the new spiritual and ethical life 
in the world. 553 A number of ordinances will, therefore, be 
offered in the Messianic period to the non-Jewish peoples — 
especially precepts, the observance of which symbolizes uni- 
versal truths concerning God and the ideal Israel. 554 The 
view expressed in a few rabbinic sources, that a time will 
come when the Torah will be forgotten in Israel, refers only 
to certain oral traditions which had to be memorized and trans- 
mitted from one generation to the other. 555 Thus, with the 
coming of Elijah, who will proclaim the arrival of the Mes- 
sianic period, many doubtful points in the traditional law, 
both oral and written, will be explained and clarified by 
Elijah. 550 Elijah will likewise explain the basic principles of 
a number of biblical statutes, the reason for which have not 
been revealed to us. The purpose of the whole body of 
biblical laws and regulations will then become clear and evi- 
dent to all. 557 All the academic discussions and disagree- 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



107 



ments on questions of interpreting the various laws, which 
divided the schools of Hillel and Shammai, will, therefore, 
not be repeated in the future. For, with the advent of the 
Messiah, all such problems and questions will become clear. 558 

It is evident, then, that in the ideal Messianic era, the tradi- 
tional ordinances and precepts, as found in the Pentateuch 
will be acknowledged and observed, perhaps with greater force 
and zeal than in the present era. In studying the rabbinic state- 
ments concerning that problem, however, one has to keep in 
mind two important points. First, that the rabbis drew a 
clear line of distinction between the ideal Messianic period 
on this earth, and the period that will follow it. The ordi- 
nances will apparently not function in the remote age that 
will follow the Messianic period on earth. 559 Secondly, the 
few striking passages that speak of doing away with the basic 
cardinal laws in the Messianic era, come undoubtedly from 
Mediaeval non-Jewish sources. Their forgery and non-Jewish 
coloring is evident both externally and internally. This is 
especially true of the passages in the last chapters of the Mid- 
rash Tehillim, and of those in Otiyyot d'R. Akiba. 560 

A typical Jewish attitude towards the problem of the funda- 
mental religious laws, like the Sabbath and others, in the ideal 
era, is found in the authoritative part of the Midrash Tehillim. 
A statement there reads : "In the present era, when one com- 
mits a cardinal sin, there is no- protest on the part of the object 
instrumental in the commission of the act. But in the era 
to come, when one is about to commit a sin, the instruments 
to be employed in the act, and even the objects that are not 
directly affected by the sinful act, will voice their protest 
against that act." 561 The idea underlying the passage is clear. 
In the era to- come, when conditions of the life of the people 
will be radically changed for the better so that temptations and 
evil inclinations in man will practically not exist, the com- 
mitting of cardinal sins and crimes will be of rare and unusual 






108 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



occurrence among men. Hence, in the rabbinic terminology, 
the very objects, or the environment, will express their indig- 
nation at the one who is to commit the treasonable act. 
Similarly, when certain rabbis voiced their opinion that some 
biblical books, included in the canon, would, in the future, 
lose their importance, they meant to suggest that in the ideal 
era, when conditions of the human race would be radically 
changed for the better, so that ideal peace and brotherhood 
would reign among all the nations and communities on the 
earth, there would be no need of stressing some of the in- 
cidents in Israel's history as recorded in some biblical books. 562 

The festivals and holidays that signify divine and universal 
truths will likewise be enthusiastically observed by the mem- 
bers of the new social order of the Utopia of the righteous. 563 
The views that some traditional festivals will not exist in the 
ideal era, only register the opinion of some rabbis that, in that 
era, some of these festivals may lose their historical sig- 
nificance, and a new interpretation of those festivals may be 
essential, since the ideal Israel will lead the whole world in the 
new life of genuine justice, righteousness, and of universal 
peace. 564 

The spiritual life of that ideal period, will similarly be 
marked by the appearance of a new form of prophetism. In 
the past, only a few individuals were spiritually gifted with 
prophetic visions. But in the era to come, every one will 
possess that power. The prophecy of Joel will thus become 
true : "And it shall come to pass afterward that I will pour 
out My spirit upon all flesh." 565 Moreover, in the past, not 
all prophets or prophecies were made public. But in the 
future, all visions and prophecies of every prophet will be 
made known to all people. 566 Similarly, every one will learn 
to know the name of God, and all will be in a position to see 
God and His glory. 567 




THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



109 



The rabbis were so optimistic about the future era, that they 
very often expressed the view that a general radical change 
would finally take place in the character of man, of the beasts 
and other creatures, as well as of their natural surroundings. 
Thus, man, woman, all the animal world, the earth and its 
produce, the deserts, the oceans, the heavenly luminaries, — 
all of them will be cured of their present defects and short- 
comings ; and their lives will be renewed in keeping with the 
spirit of the new era of the righteous. 568 This will be in 
accordance with the prophecy of Isaiah : " For, behold, I 
create new heavens and a new earth ; and the former things 
shall not be remembered, nor come into mind.' 7 569 Further- 
more, just as the Lord will make new heavens and a new earth, 
so will He make a new Israel, the ideal righteous people. 570 

The radical change in the world, which will result in prac- 
tically a new world, will be accomplished through the mercy 
and goodness of God. 571 With the advent of the Messianic 
period, therefore, the world will become perfect in all its 
aspects and phases. 572 This optimism is also voiced in one 
of the Pseudepigraphal books : " Then shall the heart of the 
inhabitants of the world be changed, and be converted to a 
different spirit. For evil shall be blotted out, and deceit 
extinguished. Faithfulness shall flourish, and corruption be 
vanquished. And, truth, which for so long a time has been 
without fruit, shall be made manifest " ; 573 " But the Day of 
Judgment shall be the end of this age and the beginning of the 
eternal age that is to come ; wherein corruption is passed away, 
weakness is abolished, infidelity is cut off ; while righteousness 
is grown and faithfulness is sprung up " 574 




CHAPTER X 

THE KINGDOM OF GOD 

. We are now in a position to discuss the Jewish conception 
of the Kingdom of God. The contrast between the Christian 
dogma and the Jewish doctrine of the Kingdom is evident. 
The dogmatic doctrine of the Kingdom in the New Testament 
is not a continuation of the prophetic hope at all. Nothing is 
mentioned in the New Testament of the spiritual and material 
glory of Palestine in the day of fulfillment. The Kingdom 
that Jesus, according to the New Testament account, speaks 
of, is more mystical, inward, and personal. 075 The New Testa- 
ment is mainly concerned, not with the earthly, but rather with 
the heavenly Kingdom of God. We read thus in John 18, 36: 
" Jesus answered : My kingdom is not of this world. If my 
kingdom were of this world, then would my servants fight, 
that I should not be delivered to the Jews. But now is my 
kingdom not from hence/' Unlike the prophets, therefore, 
Jesus thought of the Kingdom as having actually begun with 
him and his disciples. 576 Compare Mark 1, 15 : " And saying, 
The time is fulfilled, and the Kingdom of God is at hand: 
repent ye, and believe the gospel/' For, in the New Testa- 
ment, the Kingdom of God and the Kingdom of Heaven are 
practically identical. 577 This dogma of a purely spiritual 
Kingdom, independent of the material, earthly world, was 
later expounded more fully by the sophisticated argumentation 
of Paul : " Now this I say, brethren, that flesh and blood 
cannot inherit the Kingdom of God ; neither doth corruption 
inherit corruption." 57S In Romans, 14, 17, Paul remarks: 
" For the Kingdom of God is not meat and drink : but right- 
eousness, and peace, and joy in the Holy Ghost." 57 ° 

113 



114 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 




The Kingdom of God, as pictured by the Jewish prophets, 
on the other hand, is an ideal society of nations on earth, 
living in accordance with universal ethical rules of genuine 
justice, righteousness, and peace. The ideal Kingdom is a 
universal idealization of the most important experiences of 
Israel in the past. The Davidic ruler, to be recognized uni- 
versally, will be the perfect ethical character. The people 
who are to constitute the ideal community at the beginning 
of the ideal future are a remnant. The new people will not 
be sinless ; but it will be ennobled and purified. The exalted 
moral and spiritual state of the ideal stock will manifest 
itself by the universal knowledge of God. That knowledge 
will permeate the life of the individual, as well as the relation 
between man and man, or the functioning of the new society 
of the Universal State. Peace, justice, and righteousness will 
prevail everywhere. Jerusalem will be a center of rejoicing of 
the ideal people. All the nations will flow unto God's house 
in Jerusalem, For, the religion of the new Israel will be the 
ideal religion, to which all the nations will spontaneously be 
drawn. 

What the prophets anticipated did not come to pass. The 
rabbis, unconsciously, took up the idea of the Kingdom of 
God, where the prophets left off. The spiritual leaders in 
Israel expanded and developed that glorious dream of an ideal 
Universal State. The people who are to constitute the ideal 
community at the beginning of the ideal era, will be, instead 
of a remnant, the entire ideal people of Israel. The new 
people will be practically sinless. The evil inclinations in 
man, due to the new conditions, will be removed. Jerusalem 
will become the ideal capital of the new Universal State. 
God will be universally acknowledged as the Lord of Love, 
Peace, Justice, and Righteousness. 

Read the following prayer that is officially recited three 
times daily in the synagogue, and you will realize how rabbinic 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



115 



Judaism is directly following the footsteps of the prophets, 
with regard to their ideology of the Kingdom of God on 
earth : " We therefore hope in thee, O Lord our God, that we 
may speedily behold the glory of thy might, when thou wilt 
remove the abominations from the earth, and the idols will 
be utterly cut off, when the world will be perfected under the 
Kingdom of the Almighty, and all the children of flesh will 
call upon thy name, when thou wilt turn unto thyself all 
the wicked of the earth. Let all the inhabitants of the world 
perceive and know that unto thee every knee must bow, 
every tongue must swear. Before thee, O Lord our God, let 
them bow and fall ; and unto thy glorious name let them give 
honour; let them all accept the yoke of thy kingdom, and do 
thou reign over them speedily, and for ever and ever. For the 
kingdom is thine, and to all eternity thou will reign in glory ; 
as it is written in thy Law, the Lord shall reign for ever and 
ever. And it is said, And the Lord shall be king over all the 
earth: in that day shall the Lord be One, and his" name 
One ". 580 

By praying for the kingdom and rule of the house of the 
ideal David, we simply articulate our hopes that the new era 
will arrive, in which wickedness will have disappeared from 
the earth, and righteousness, as symbolized in the King- 
dom of God, will thenceforth reign among men. 581 The 
Kingdom of God, in other words, will be realized through the 
rule of the ideal house of David. 582 It is this ideal and right- 
eous David that will preside at every gathering of the just and 
the upright. 583 Thus, when the everlasting seat of the house 
of David is established, the whole world of the new era will be 
happy— and acclaim it accordingly. 584 For, that ideal house 
will signify a world united for one important purpose, namely, 
that, in the words of Zephaniah, they may all call upon the 
name of the Lord, to serve Him with one consent. 585 R. 
Johanan undoubtedly thought of that ideal kingdom on earth, 

9 



116 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



when he said that every one should make an effort to meet a 
king personally, — be he Jewish or non-Jewish — in the present 
era, so that when the ideal era arrives, one will be in a position, 
through recognizing the difference, to appreciate the heads of 
the new order. 586 

The kingdom of the house of David will thus symbolize 
the new ideal era of justice and righteousness prevailing 
throughout the world, the source of its new life and the bless- 
ings of which will come from Zion. 587 An exalted description 
of the ideal ruler of the house of David in the ideal era, and 
which agrees in most points with the rabbinic ideology, is 
given in the Book of the Psalms of Solomon : " And he shall 
gather together a holy people, whom he shall lead in right- 
eousness. . . . And he shall not suffer unrighteousness to 
lodge anymore in their midst. . . . For he shall know them, 
that they a*e all sons of their God. . . . He shall judge peoples 
and nations in the wisdom of his righteousness. . . . And he 
shall glorify the Lord in a place to be seen of all the earth . . . 
so that nations shall come from the ends of the earth to see 
his glory. . . . For he shall not put his trust in horse and 
rider and bow, nor shall he multiply for himself gold and 
silver for war. ... He will bless the people of the Lord with 
wisdom and gladness, and he himself will be pure from sin, 
so that he may rule a great people. . . . His hope will be in 
the Lord. Who then can prevail against him? He will be 
mighty in his works, and strong in the fear of God. He will 
be shepherding the flock of the Lord faithfully and right- 
eously. ... In the assemblies he will judge the peoples, the 
tribes of the sanctified. . . . Blessed be they that shall be in 
those days." 588 The elders of the local communities, who 
will head the righteous people, will, likewise, be known for 
their gentleness and sympathy toward all their fellow-men. 589 

Furthermore, when the rabbis speak of the Kingdom of 
God on earth, they refer to the rule of God in the ideal era 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



117 



to come, when God will be recognized as the Lord of the uni- 
verse, not only by Israel, but by all members of the human 
race. 590 The new Kingdom will thus be governed by the law 
of love and mutual self-sacrifice. The people will then ac- 
knowledge the Lord, in the words of Isaiah, as their Judge, 
Lawgiver, and King. 591 The rivers, mountains, and trees, 
will express their joy and gladness, when the Lord will estab- 
lish His kingdom on earth, so that He will be acknowledged 
universally as the Judge and King of the world. 592 Another 
prophecy of Isaiah will then, likewise, be fulfilled, namely, 
" And the Lord alone shall be exalted in that day." 593 God 
will thus be clothed with glory and majesty. 594 For, the Holy 
One will then display His glory to all creatures in the world. 595 

Moreover, God will then be recognized as Protector of the 
dwelling and home of every individual. 596 The Lord will be 
universally known as the Good One, who bestows only good- 
ness and real happiness upon the world. 597 Isaiah spoke of 
that period, when he said : " And whereof from of old men 
have not heard, nor perceived by the ear, neither hath the eye 
seen a God beside Thee, who worketh for him that waiteth 
for Him." 598 Thus, just as in the past the Divine Presence 
of God dwelt in Jerusalem, so, in the ideal era to come, the 
Divine Presence will fill the whole world, from one end to 
the other. 599 

The prayers for the Jewish New Year voice admirably the 
prophetic-rabbinic ideology of the Kingdom on earth : l< Then 
shall the just also see and be glad, and the upright shall exult, 
and the pious triumphantly rejoice, while iniquity shall close 
her mouth, and all wickedness shall be wholly consumed like 
smoke, when thou makest the dominion of arrogance to pass 
away from the earth. And thou, O Lord, shalt reign, thou 
alone over all thy works on Mount Zion, the dwelling place of 
thy glory, and in Jerusalem, thy holy city, as it is written in 
thy Holy Words, The Lord shall reign for ever, thy God, 



118 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



O Zion, unto all generations. . . . Our God and God of our 
fathers, reign thou in thy glory over the whole universe, and 
be exalted above all the earth in thine honour, and shine forth 
in the splendour and excellence of thy might upon all the 
inhabitants of thy world, that whatsoever hath been made 
may know that thou hast made it, and whatsoever hath been 
created may understand that thou hast created it, and what- 
soever hath breath in its nostriles may say, The Lord God of 
Israel is King, and his dominion ruleth over all." eo ° 

The same thought is expressed in the Kaddish prayer 
recited by the mourners at the burial of their relation : " May 
his great name be magnified and sanctified in the world that is 
to be created anew, where ... he will rebuild the city of 
Jerusalem, and establish his temple in the midst thereof ; 
and will uproot all alien worship from the earth and restore 
the worship of the true God. O may the Holy One, blessed 
be he, reign in his sovereignty and glory during your life and 
during the life of all the house of Israel, even speedily and at 
a near time." G01 



NOTES 



122 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



29. Midr. Levit. R., ch. 19, sec. 3; Midr. Cant. R., ch. 5, to verse 11, 
sec. 5. 

30. Ezek. 47, 12. 

31. Cf. Ezek, 47, 10. 

32. Bet ha-Midrash by Yellinek, vol 3, pp. 67-68. 

33. Megil. 15b; Sanh. 111b; cf. Aggadat Esther, ch. 5, p. 46. 

34. Midr. ha-Gadol, Bereshit, col. 75. 

35. Midr. Tanh., Zaw, sec. 16, ed. B.; Pinehas, sec. 14, ed. W. ; 
cf. Midr. Aggadah, at end of Zaw, p. 18, In B.B. 75a, R. Johanan 
says that each righteous one will have seven canopies. In Taanit 9b, 
the reading is, not canopy, but cloud ; while in Midr. Levit. R., ch. 27, 
at end of sec. 1, the reading is "Eden". Cf. Midr. Tehillim, ch. 34, 
sec. 2, ed. B. ; Midr. Ruth R„ ch. 3, sec. 4; Pesikta R, 31, p. 145a. 

36. Midr. Numb. R., ch. 13, sec. 2; cf. Aggadat Shir ha-Shirim, 
p. 37; Midr. Zuta to Cant, ch. 4, p. 15a; Sefer Hekalot, at end of ch. 21. 

31. Is. 25, 9; Taanit 31a; cf. Yerush. Megil. ch. 2, p. 73b; Yerush. 
M. K., ch. 3, p. 83b; Midr. Levit. R., ch. 11, sec. 9; Midr. Cant. R., 
ch. 1, to verse 3, sec. 3; ch. 7, to verse 1, sec. 2; Midr. Eccles. R., 
ch. 1, to verse 11, sec. 1; Midr. Tanh., Zaw, sec. 16, ed. B.; Midr. 
Tehillim, ch. 48, sec. 5, ed. B. ; at end of ch. 48, p. 94b, ed. Warsaw 1865. 

38. Midr. Levit. R., ch. 11, sec. 8; Seder Eliyahu R., ch. 3, p. 14. 

39. Midr. Levit. R., ib. 

40. Kab ha-Yashar by Zevi Koidenower, at end of ch. 4, Venice 1743. 

41. B. B. 75b. 

42. B. B. ib. 

43. Pesikta d'R. Kahana, Wezot ha-Berakah, p. 201a. 

44. Sifra, Behukkotai, p. Ilia, 

45. Seder Eliyahu R., begin, of ch. 5, p. 20; cf. Yebamot 47a; 
Yerush. Yoma, ch. 3, p. 41a; Shekalim, ch. 5, p. 49a; Midr. Cant. R., 
ch. 3, to verse 6, sec, 4. 

46. Midr. Tanh., Emor, sec. 23, ed. B. 

47. Midr. Gen. R., ch. 40, sec. 2; cf. Midr. Tanh, Toledot, sec. 6, 
ed. B. ; Midr. Lekah Tob, Lek Leka, p. 30a. 

48. Seder Eliyahu R„ ch. 29, p. 165 ; cf. Midr. Gen. R, ch. 58, sec. 1. 

49. Yerush. Shab., end of ch. 6, p. 8d; Midr. Deutr. R., ch. 1, sec. 12; 
cf. Abot d'R. Nathan, version 1, ch, 1, p. 3a, hot. 

50. Ps. 31, 20; Midr. Gen. R., ch. 62, sec. 2; Midr. Exod. R., ch. 45, 
sec. 6; ch. 50, sec. 5; Midr. Tanh., Toledot, sec. 11, ed. B. ; Midr. 
Tehillim, ch. 31, sec. 7, ed. B. ; ch. 37, sec. 3; cf. Yerush. *Abod. Zarah, 
ch. 3, p. 42c ; Asaf , Teshubot ha~Geonim, p. 46. 

51. Midr. Tehillim, ch. 25, sec. 9, ed. B. 



NOTES 



123 



52. Ps. 31, 20; Midr. Deutr. R„ ch. 1, sec. 9. 

53. Midr. Exod. R., ch. 52, sec. 3. 

54. 'Ukzin, ch. 3, Mish. 12; Talmud, Sanh., 100a; Midr. Tehillim, 
ch. 31, sec. 6, ed. B. ; cf. Otiyyot d'R. Akiba, version 2, pp. 18b-19a. 

55. Pesah. 119b. 

56. B. B. 74-75a; Midr. Gen. R., ch. 67, sec. 2; Midr. Exod. R., 
ch. 25, sec. 8; Midr. Numb. R., ch. 21, sec. 18; Pesikta R., 16, p. 80b; 
■ cf. Midr. Levit. R., ch. 13, sec. 3. 

57. Is. 64, 3; Midr. Esther R., ch. 2 sec. 4; cf. Midr. Lekah Tob, 
Bereshit, p. 7b, 

58. Is. 60, 3; B. B. 75a. 

59. Cf. Pesikta d'R, Kahana, p. 187b; Yellinek, Bet ha-Midrash, 
vol. 3, p. 76. 

60. Pesikta d'R. Kahana, p. 188b; cf. B. B. 75a; Midr. Zuta to 
Cant., ch. 6, p. 17a. 

61. Midr. Tanh., Terumah, sec. 3, ed. B. 

62. Midr. Exod. R., ch. 45, sec. 6. 

63. Hagigah 12a; Midr. Gen. R., ch. 11, sec. 2; ch. 12, sec. 6; 
ch. 42, sec. 3; Midr. Exod. R. f ch. 35, sec. 1; Midr. Levit. R., ch. 11, 
end of sec. 7; Midr. Numb. R., ch. 13, sec, 5; Midr. Ruth R., Introd., 
end of sec. 7; Midr. Esther R., Introd., sec. 11; Tur Orah Hayyim, 
Hilk. Birkot ha-Shahar, ch. 59. Cf. Yerush. Berakot, ch. 8, p. 12c; 
Midr. Gen. R., ch. 3, sec. 6; Midr. Tehillim, ch, 27, sec. 1, .ed, B.; 
ch. 97, sec, 2; Otiyyot d'R. Akiba, version 2, p. 19a. 

64. Pesahim 50a. 

65. Ps. 31, 20. 

66. Ps. 97, 11; Midr. Tanh., Wayakhel, sec. 10, ed. W.; cf. Midr. 
Tehillim, ch. 22, sec. 11, ed. B. 

67. Is. 30, 26; Sanh. 91b; Midr. Exod. R., ch. 50, sec. 5; Midr. Eccles. 
R., ch. 11, to verse 7, sec. 1; Pesikta R., 2, p, 7b; Midr. Konen, p. 4; 
Bet ha-Midrash by Yellinek, vol. 6, p. 118; cf. Treatise Soferim, ch. 20, 
sec. 1. 

68. Is. 60, 19; Midr. Tehillim, ch. 36, p. 87a, ed. W.; cf. Midr. Tanh., 
Wayakhel, sec. 11, ed. B.; sec. 10, ed. W.; Midr. Tehillim, ch. 22, 
sec. 4, ed. B. ; Abot d'R. Nathan, version 2, ch. 37, p. 48a. 

69. Is. 24, 23; Sanh. 91b; Treatise Soferim ch. 21, sec. 9; Midr. 
Tehillim, ch. 72, sec. 4, ed. B. 

70. Ps. 36, 10; Midr. ha-Gadol, Wayishlah col. 514. 

71. Midr. Zuta to Cant., ch. 2, p. 12b. 

72. Sefer Hekalot, ch. 17; cf. Midr. Gen. R., ch. 1, sec. 6; Pesikta 
R., 37, p. 164a. 



124 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



73. Midr. Lament. R., ch. 1, sec. 51. 

74. Targum Jonathan, Judges 5, 31 ; Midr. Tanh., Bereshit, sec. 6, 
ed. W.; Bet ha-Midrash by Yellinek, vol. 6, p. 119; cf. Midr. Tehillim, 
ch. 49, sec. 1, ed. B. 

75. Is. 60, 3; Midr. Tehillim, ch. 72, sec. 5, ed. B.; cf. Midr. Levit. 
R., ch. 28, sec. 1; Midr. Eccles. R., ch. 1, to verse 3, sec. 1; Nispahim 
T Seder Eliyahu Zuta, Pirke ha-Yeridot, ch. 3, p. 56. 

76. Sifre, Debarim, sec. 10, p. 67a; Midr. Levit. R., ch. 30, sec. 2; 
Midr. Hallel, pp. 29-30; cf. Sifre 'Ekeb, sec. 47, p. 83a; Yerush., 
Hagigah, ch. 2, p. 77a; Midr. Exod. R., ch. 15, sec. 31; Midr. Levit. 
R., ch. 19, sec. 3; Midr. Cant. R., ch. 5, to verse 11, sec. 5; Midr. 
Tanh., Terumah, sec. 3, ed. B.; Midr. Tehillim, ch. 45, sec. 3, ed. B. ; 
Midr. Zuta to Cant., ch. 6, p. 17a. 

77. Cf. Charles, The Book of Enoch, pp. 188-190; 194-195; 204-205; 
207; 209-214; 217; 223; 263-265. 

78. The Book of Jubilees, ch. 7, p. 25. 

79. The Psalms of Solomon, ch. 18, p. 651. 

80. Midr. Tehillim, ch. Ill, sec. 1, ed. B. 

81. Midr. Tehillim, ch. 1, sec. 20, ed. B. 

82. The Book of Enoch, ch. 48, p. 217; cf. The Assumption of Moses, 
ch. 12, p. 424. 

83. Midr. Tehillim, ch, 146, sec. 9, ed. B. 

84. Seder Eliyahu R., ch. 18, pp. 108-109. 

85. Midr. Gen. R., ch. 20, sec. 1 ; cf. Midr. Mishle, end of ch. 6, p. 29b. 

86. Cf. 'Abod, Zarah lOa-b; Midr. Numb. R., ch. 21, sec. 20; 
Pesikta d'R. Kahana, p. 59b. 

87. Midr. Gen. R., ch. 26, sec. 2; cf. also R. Joshua's doctrine of 
future reward and punishment, as quoted in 'Erubin 19a. 

88. Is. 25, 8. 

89. Midr. Tehillim, ch. 31, sec. 9, ed. Buber; cf. Malachi 3, 17-24; 
Midr, Tank., Terumah, sec. 3, ed. B. 

90. Midr. Peliah, sec. 116. 

91. Yerush. Berak., ch. 2, p. 5a. 

92. Mekil. d'R. Ishmael, Beshallah, p. 39b; Seder Eliyahu Zuta, 
begin, of ch. 13, p. 194; cf. Midr. Tehillim, ch. 28, sec. 5, ed. B.; 
Abot d'R. Nathan, version 2, ch. 32, p. 36a. 

93. Midr. Tanh., Emor, sec. 12, ed. B. 

94. Is. 2, 12-17. 

95. Mekil. d'R. Ishmael, Beshallah, p. 35b; Midr. ha-Gadol, Beshallah, 
p. 153. 

96. Pesahim 50a. 




NOTES 



125 



97. Midr. Gen. R., ch. 12, sec. 10; Midr. Tehillim, ch. 114, sec. 3, 
ed. B.; cf. Midr, ha-Gadol, Bereshit, col. 10. 

98. Mekil. d'R. Ishmael, Beshallah, p. 35b; Midr. Gen. R., ch. 12, 
sec. 10; Midr, Tehillim, ch. 14, sec. 3, ed. B.; cf. Midr. Gen, R., ch, 82, 
sec. 8 ; Midr. Tanh., Lek Leka, sec. 3, ed. W. 

99. Mekil. d'R. Ishmael, Beshallah, p. 41a-b; Mekil. d'R Shimeon, 
Beshallah, p. 66; Yerush. *Ab. Zarah, ch. 4, p. 44a; Midr. Exod. R., 
ch. 15, end of sec. 15 ; Midr. ha-Gadol, Beshallah, p. 162 ; Midr. Tehillim, 
ch, 83, sec. 3, ed. B. ; cf. the statement of Samuel, Midr. Tehillim, ch. 9, 
sec. 6, ed. B.; ch, 9, p. 32b, ed. W. 

100. Ezek. 9, 4 ; Otiyyot d'R. Akiba, version 1, p. 1 ; cf. Shab. 55a. 

101. Mekil, d'R. Shimeon, Addition to Wa'era, p. 173; Sanh. 98b- 
99a ; Midr. Gen. R., ch. 2, sec. 3 ; Midr. Levit. R., ch. 27, sec. 1 ; Midr. 
Tehillim, ch. 22, sec. 3, ed. B.; Pesikta R„ 8, p. 30a; Sefer Mazref 
by Berechio ha-Nakdan, p. 70. 

102. Ps. 101, 8; Mekil. d'R. Ishmael, Beshallah, p. 32a. 

103. Nedarim 8b; B. M. 83b; 'Ab. Zarah 3b-4a; Midr. Eccles. R., 
ch. 1, to verse 5, sec. 2; Midr. Tehillim, ch. 41, sec. 4, ed. B. ; ch. 58, 
sec, 3; cf. Midr. Tehillim, ch. 101, sec. 4; Aggadat Bereshit, ch. 23, 
p. 21a; Otiyyot d'R. Akiba, version 1, p. 4a. 

104. Mai. 3, 19. 

105. Midr. Tehillim, ch. 149, sec. 6, ed. B. ; cf. Tosefta Berakot, ch. 6, 
sec. 7; Abot d'R. Nathan, version I, ch. 21, p. 37b; Midr. Gen. R,, 
ch. 6, sec. 6; ch. 26, sec. 6; ch. 48, sec. 8; Midr. Exod. R., ch, 15, 
end of sec. 27 ; Midr, Eccles. R., ch. 3, to verse 9, sec. 1 ; Midr. Tanh., 
Wayera, sec. 3, ed. W. ; Wayikra, sec. 18, ed. B. ; Shofetim, sections 8 
and 10, ed. B.; Midr. Tehillim, ch. 19, sec. 13, ed. B. ; ch. 38, sec. 2; 
ch. 40, sec. 4; Pesikta d'R Kahana, p. 186b; Midr. ha-Gadol, fjayye 
Sarah, col. 381; Aggadat Bereshit, ch. 20, p. 18a; Midr. Aggadah to 
the Pentateuch, end of Wayikra, p. 11 ; Otiyyot d'R. Akiba, version 1, 
p. 8a-b, 

106. Prov. 11, 10; Otiyyot d'R. Akiba, version 2, p. 25b. 

107. Ps. 104, 35; Midr. Levit. R., ch. 4, sec. 7; cf. Midr. Tehillim, 
ch. 138, sec. 2, ed. B. 

108. Midr. Tehillim, ch. 92, sec. 10, ed. B. ; cf. Yerush. Ma'aserot, end 
of ch. 3, p. 51a. 

109. Midr, Tehillim, ch. 96, sec. 2, ed. B. 

110. Midr. Tanh., Noah, sec. 12, ed. B.; Pirke d'R. Eliezer, ch. 51. 

111. Cf. Is. 65, 17. 

112. Midr. Tehillim, ch. 46, sec. 2, ed. B.; cf. Otiyyot d'R. Akiba, 
version 2, p. 18b. 



126 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



113. Midr. Tehillim, ch. 1, sec. 22, ed. B. 

114. Midr. Hallel, p. 31. 

115. Midr. Tehillim, ch. 6, sec, 6, ed. B. ; ch. 31, sec. 6; ch. 70, 
sec. 2 ; Midr. Konen, p. 8. 

116. Midr. Hallel, p. 32. 

117. Sukkah 52a. 

118. Is. 25, 9; Midr. Tehillim, ch. 119, sec. 17, ed. B. 

119. Midr. Tehillim, ch. 84, sec. 3, ed. B. 

120. Otiyyot d'R. Akiba, version 2, p. 17a; cf. Kab ha-Yashar byZevi 
Koidenower, end of ch. 4, Venice 1743. 

121. Midr. Gen. R., ch. 20, sec. 5 ; Midr. Tehillim, ch. 1, sec. 10, ed. B. 

122. Is. 40, 5; Midr. Tehillim, ch. 17, sec. 14, ed. B. 

123. Is. 11, 4; Midr. Tanh., Toledot, sec. 20, ed. B. ; Aggadat Bereshit, 
ch. 45, p. 38b, 

124. Jer. 23, 5 ; Midr. Numb. R., ch. 18, sec. 21. 

125. Midr. Gen. R., ch. 76, sec. 2. 

126. Midr. Tanh., Ki Tissa, sec. 32 } ed. W. 

127. Ps. 119, 142; Midr. Tehillim, ch. Ill, sec. 2, ed. B. 

128. Mekil. d'R. Shimeon, Beshallah, p. 40 ; Midr. Eccles. R„ ch. 7, 
to verse 11, sec. 1 ; Pesikta d'R. Kahana, p. 187b; Midr. Samuel, ch. 18, 
p. 29b ; Bet ha-Midrash by Yellinek, vol. 3, p. 76. 

129. Berakot 58b; Midr. Tehillim, beg. of ch. 125, p. 178a-b, ed. W. 

130. Sanh. 92b; Midr. Levit R., ch. 13, sec. 3. 

131. Is. 65, 22; Midr. Levit. R., ch. 25, sec. 8; Midr. Eccles. R., 
ch. 1, to verse 4, sec. 1 ; Midr. Cant. R., ch. 5, to verse 15, sec. 2. 

132. Is. Ibid.; Midr. Cant. R., ibid. 

133. Midr. Eccles. R., ch. 2, to verse 1, sec. 1. 

134. Seder Eliyahu R. ch. 18, p. 97; cf. Midr. ha-Gadol, begin, of 
Mikkez, col. 601. 

135. Is. 60, 22 ; Midr. Tanh., flayye Sarah, sec. 8, ed. W. 

136. Bet ha-Midrash by Yellinek, vol. 3, p. 77. 

137. Aggadat Shir ha-Shirim, p. 18; cf. ibid. p. 107. 

138. Aggadat Bereshit, ch. 23, p. 20b. 

139. Cf. Mekil, d'R. Ishmael, Yitro, p. 58b; 'Ab. Zarah 2a; 4b; 
Midr. Tannaim to Deutr., p. 73 ; Midr. Exod. R., ch. 2, sec. 5 ; Midr. 
Levit. R., ch. 2, sec. 2; Midr. Cant. R., ch. 1, to verse 14, end of 
sec. 3 ; ch. 6, to verse 10, sec. 1 ; ch. 7, to verse 7, sec. 1 ; Midr. Esther 
R., Introd., sec. 4; Midr. Tanh., Bereshit, sec. 20; Naso, sec. 13, 
ed. B. ; Nizzabim, sec. 4, ed. W. ; Midr. Lekah Tob, Bo, p. 27a ; Midr. 
Samuel, ch. 19, p. 30a; Midr. Tehillim, ch. 113, sec. 4, ed. B.; Seder 



NOTES 



127 



Eliyahu R., ch. 26, pp. 140-141; We-Hizhir, Tezawweh, p. lOOa-b; 
Pesikta Zutarti, Behukkotai, p. 34b. 
139a. Alfred Tennyson, The Day-Dream, L' Envoi, 

140. Cf. Mekil. d'R. Ishmael, Beshallah, p. 44a; Sifra, Behukkotai, 
p. 112a; Pesikta R., 20, p, 98b; 35, p. 160b; Midr. Aggadah to the 
Pentateuch, end of Emor, p. 5^. 

141. Midr. ha-Gadol, Bereshit, col. 8-9. 

142. Midr. Tehillim, ch. 12, sec. 5, ed. B. 

143. Treatise Soferim, ch. 20, sec. 1. 

144. Ps. 125, 2; Midr. Exod. R., ch. 20, sec. 18. 

145. Midr. Cant. R., ch. 1, to verse 3, sec. 2; cf. Is. 29, 4. 

146. Is, 61, 9; Midr. Tanh., Re' eh, sec. 4, ed. W.; Midr. ha-Gadol, 
Lek Leka, col. 204. 

147. Is. 60, 3; Midr. Exod. R., ch. 15, sec. 21; Midr. Numb. R., 
ch. 15, sec. 2; ch. 21, sec. 22; Midr. Cant. R., ch. 4, to verse 1, sec. 2 
Midr. Esther R., ch. 7, sec, 11 ; Midr. Tanh., Tezawweh, sec 8, ed. W. 
Behaaloteka, sec. 2, ed. B.; Pesikta d'R. Kahana, p. 149b, ed. B. 
cf. Pesikta R., 36, p. 162b. 

148. Pesikta d'R. Kahana, p. 149b. 

149. Midr. Tanh., Ki Tabo, sec. 4, ed. B. ; Persikta Zutarti, Balak. 
pp. 57b-58a; cf. Deutr. 26, 16-19; Midr. Hallel, p. 9. 

150. Cf. Deutr. 11, 12. 

151. Cf. Ps. 121, 3. 

152. Sifre, 'Ekeb, sec. 40, p. 78b. 

153. Midr. Zuta to Cant, ch. 1, p, 11a, 

154. Levit. 20, 26. 

155. Midr. Cant. R., ch. 6, to last verse of ch. 5, sec. 5. 

156. Singer's Daily Prayer Book, Morning Service, p. 40. 

157. The Book of Jubillees, ch. 16, p. 38; cf. Note by Charles ad loc. 

158. Zech. 8, 23; Midr. Tanh., Terumah, sec. 9, ed. W. ; Bemidbar 
sec. 3, ed. B. ; cf. Midr. Numb. R., ch. 1, end of sec. 3. 

159. Pesikta R., 22, p. 114b; cf. Jer. 4, 1-2. 

160. Midr. Deutr. R., ch. 3, sec. 7; cf. B. B. 10a. 

161. Midr. Numb. R., ch. 2, sec. 13; Pesikta R., 11, p. 45a. 

162. Mekil, d'R. Ishmael, Beshallah, p. 39b; Mekil. d'R. Shimeon, 
Addition to Wa'era, p. 173; Megillah 15b; Yebamot 47a; Yerush. 
Berakot, ch. 2, p. 5a; Midr. Exod. R., ch. 15, end of sec. 27; sec. 31 ; 
ch. 25, sec. 7 and 8; ch. 50, sec. 5; Midr. Levit. R., ch. 13, sec. 3; 
ch. 20, end of sec. 2; ch. 27, end of sec. 1 ; Midr, Numb. R., ch. 21, sec. 
22; Midr. Deutr. R,, ch. 1, sec. 12; Midr. Cant. R., ch. 7, to verse 1, 
sec. 2; Midr. Tanh., Bereshit, sec. 6, ed. W.; Noah, sec. 12, ed. 



128 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



B.; Wayakhel, sec. 10, ed. W.; sec. 11, ed. B.; Ahare Mot, sec. 

2, ed, W.; sec. 3, ed. B.; Emor, sec. 12, ed. B.; Midr. Aggadah. 
to the Pentateuch, end of Zaw, p. 18; Midr. Tehillim, ch. 14, sec. 

3, ed. B.; ch. 22, sec. 3; sec. 11; ch. 27, sec. 1; ch. 31, sec. 7; 
ch. 48, sec. 5; ch. 92, sec. 10; ch. 96, sec. 2; ch. 97, sec. 2; ch. 
Ill, sec. 1; ch. 138, sec. 2; Midr. Mishle, ch. 13, to verse 25, 
p. 37b; Aggadat Bereshit, ch. 23, p. 48; Aggadat Shir ha-Shirim, 
p. 37 ; Seder Eliyahu R., begin, of ch. 5, pp. 20-21 ; Midr. ha-Gadol, 
Wayishlah, col. 513-514; begin, of Mikkez, col. 601 ; Bet ha-Midrash by 
Yellinek, vol. 3, pp. 75-77 ; vol. 6, pp. 118420 ; cf. Midr. Tehillim, ch. 31, 
sec. 6, ed. B.; Nispahim l'Seder Eliyahu Zuta, Pirke ha-Yeridot, ch. 3, 
p. 56 ; Otiyyot d'R. Akiba, version 2, pp. 16b-17a. 

163. Mekil. d'R. Ishmael, Ki Tissa, p. 103b; Mekil. d'R. Shimeon, 
Ki Tissa, p. 160; Midr. Tanh., Kedoshim, sec. 1, ed. B. ; Midr. 
Aggadah to the Pentateuch, Ki Tissa, p. 180 ; Midr. Lekah Tob, Ki 
Tissa, p. 100b. 

164. Midr. Tanh., Kedoshim, sec, 5, ed. B. ; Midr. Aggadah to the 
Pentateuch, Kedoshim, p. 46. 

165. Ezek. 37, 28; Midr. Numb, R., ch. 9, sec. 49; Menorat ha-Maor 
by R. Israel al-Nakawa, vol. 4, ch. 17, p. 323, ed. Endow. 

166. Ezek. 36, 25; Yerush. Yoma, end of ch. 8, p. 45c; Midr. Exod. 
R., ch. 3, sec. 13; Midr. Levit. R., ch. 15, sec. 9; Midr. Numb. R., ch. 7, 
end of sec. 10; Midr. Tanh., Tazria\ sec. 12, ed. B.; Mezora', sec. 17. 

167. Midr. Tanh., Mezora, sec. 9 and 18, ed. B. 

168. Midr. Tanh., Shemini, sec. 4, ed. W. 

169. Shab. 89b. Midr. Levit. R., ch. 29, sec. 2; Seder Eliyahu R., 
ch. 1, p. 5 ; ch. 15, p. 69; cf. Midr. Gen, R., ch. 48, sec. 10 ; Midr. Numb. 
R., ch. 14, sec, 2; Midr. Hallel, pp. 38-39. 

170. Ezek. 36, 26; Midr. Tanh., Noah, sec. 13; Toledot, sec. 
13; Wayikra, sec. 6; Behaaloteka, sec. 10, ed. W.; Additions to 
Wa'ethanan, sec. 2, ed. B. ; cf. Midr. Wayosha, beg. of ch. 22, p. 31 ; 
Otiyyot d'R. Akiba, version 1, p. 8a. 

171. Midr. Deutr. R., ch. 3, end of sec. 11. 

172. Midr. Tanh., Lek Leka, sec. 15, ed. W. ; sec. 19, ed. B. 

173. Midr. Numb. R., ch. 15, end. of sec. 25; Midr. Tanh., Behaalo- 
teka, sec. 28, ed. B.; cf. S. Asaf, Teshubot ha-Geonim, p. 253. 

174. Midr, Tehillim, ch. Ill, sec. 1, ed. B. ; cf. ch. 73, sec. 4. 

175. Midr. Tehillim, ch. 73, sec. 4, ed. B. ; cf. Joel 4, 18, 

176. Midr. Tehillim, ch. 149, sec. 1, ed, B. Cf. also Sa'adia Gaon's 
summary of the outstanding qualifications essential for the ideal Israel, 
given at the end of Sa'adia's commentary to Cant., pp. 131-132, in 



NOTES 



129 



Wertheimer's Gaon ha-Geonim, Jerusalem 1925 : "All the people will 
be righteous, prophets/priests of the Lord, ideal kings, and without 
any blemish or sins." 

177. Is. 54, 13; Midr. Tanh., Wayiggash, sec. 11, ed. W. 

178. Sifre, Wezot ha-Berakah, sec. 356 t p. 148b; Midr. Tannaim. 
to Deutr., p. 189. 

179. Midr. Tanh., Wayakhel, sec. 5, ed. W. 

180. Midr. Exod. R., ch. 15, sec. 23 ; Pesikta R., 18, p. 90b. 

181. Pesikta R., 36, p. 161a-b; Pesikta d'R. Kahana, p. 68a; Midr. 
Levit. R. } ch. 6, end of sec. 6; Midr. Lekah Tob, Lek Leka, p. 36a; 
cf. Midr. Tanh., Noah, sec. 12, ed. W.; Bo, sec. 15, ed. B. ; Tezawweh, 
sec. 5, ed. B. ; Midr. Tehillim, ch. 49, sec. 1, ed. B. ; Midr. Aggadah 
to the Pentateuch, Tezawweh, p. 174; Aggadat Bereshit, ch. 55, pp. 
46b-47a. 

182. Midr. Gen. R., ch. 98, sec. 9 ; Pirke R. Eliezer, end of ch, 3, 
p. 4a. 

183. Jer. 31, 33; Midr. Tanh., Yitro, sec. 13, ed. B. 

184. Midr. Tanh., Wayesheb, sec. 7, ed. B. 

185. Midr. Tanh., Yitro, sec. 13, ed. B. 

186. Midr. Tanh., Mizzabim, sec. 4, ed. B. 

187. Yerush. Hagigah, ch. 2, p. 77d. 

188. Is. 66, 12; Midr. Gen. R., ch. 66, sec. 2. 

189. Midr. Numb. R., ch. 15, sec. 14; Midr. Tanh,, Zaw, sec. 4; 
Behaaloteka, sec. 16, ed. B.; Shofetim, sec. 9, ed. W. 

190. Pirke R. Eliezer, begin, of ch. 34; cf. Mekil. d'R. Ishmael, 
Beshallah, p. 37b; Yitro, p. 66b; Midr. Numb. R., ch. 15, sec. 14; 
Midr. Tanh., Beha'aloteka, sec, 16, ed. B. ; Midr. Lekah Tob, Wayehi, 
p. 118a; Seder Eliyahu R., ch. 18, p. 109; Pesikta Zutarti, Ha'azinu, 
p. 89b. 

191. Midr. Tanh., Bo, sec. 19, ed. B. ; cf. Midr. Numb. R., ch. 5, end of 
sec. 9. 

192. Midr. Tehillim, ch. 1, sec. 20, ed. B. ; cf, Midr. Gen. R., ch. 83, 
sec. 5 ; Midr. Cant. R., ch, 2, to verse 1, sec. 3 ; ch. 7, to verse 3, sec, 3 ; 
ch. 8, to verse 9, sec. 3. 

193. Midr. Ruth R., Introd., sec, 1; cf. Midr. Lament. R., ch. 3, 
sec. 7; Midr. Tehillim, ch. 49, sec. 1, ed. B. 

194. Midr. Levit. R., ch. 2, sec. 5; Pesikta d'R. Kahana, p. 17b. 

195. Pirke R. Eliezer, end of ch. 40; Nispahim l'Seder Eliyahu Zuta, 
Pirke ha-Yeridot, ch. 2, p. 54. 

196. Deutr. 28, 10; Midr. Exod. R., ch. 15, sec. 6; Midr. Deutr. R., 
ch, 1, end of sec. 25. 



130 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



197. Is. 61, 9; Seder Eliyahu Zuta, ch. 15, p. 199. 

198 Is 60, 19; Midr. Tanh, Tezawweh, sec. 4, ed. W. ; sec. 6, 
ed. B.; Midr. Tehillim, ch. 36, sec. 6, ed. B.; Midr. Lekah Tob, end of 
Pekude, p. Ilia; Pesikta d'R. Kahana, p. 145a. 
. 199. Is. 30, 26. < 

200. Pesikta R„ 42, p. 177b; Midr. Lekah Tob, Wayeze, p. 70b; 

cf. Mai. 3, 20. ■'■ 

201. Is. 10, 17; Pesikta R., 11, p. 46b; Aggadat Shir ha-Shinm, p. 11A 

202 Ps 31 20; Sifre, Wezot ha-Berakah, sec. 356, p. 148b; Midr. 
Cant. R-, ch. V, to verse 14, sec. 1; Midr. Lekah Tob, Bereshit, p. la. 

203 Sifra, Behukkotai, p. Ilia; Sifre, Ha'azinu, sec. 310, p. 134a; 
sec 317, pp. 135b-136a; Talmud, B. M., 33b; Midr. Gen. R., ch. 70, 
sec 6- ch 86, sec. 1; Midr. Exod. R, ch. 31, end of sec. 17; Midr. 
Numb' R-, ch. 21, sec. 22; Midr. Deutr. R. f ch, 3, sec. 4; Midr. Ruth 
R Introd., sec. 3 ; Midr. Eccles, R., ch. 2, to verse 8, sec. 1 ; Midr. 
Tanh, Beshallah, sec. 14 and 24, ed. B. ; Midr. Tehillim, ch. 4, sec. 11, 
ed B • ch. 104, sec. 24; Pesikta d'R. Kahana, p. 149b; Midr. ha-Gadol, 
Bereshit, col. 75; Lek Leka, col. 256; Mikkez, col. 632; Midr. Zuta 
to Cant., ch. 7, p. 18a; Midr. Aggadah to the Pentateuch, Tazna, 
p. 30; Pesikta Zutarti, Shelah, p. 50b; Ha'azinu, p. 88a. 

204. Midr. Tanh., Naso, sec. 18, ed. W. ; sec. 29, ed. B. 

205. Midr. Deutr. R., ch. 7, sec. 12 ; Aggadat Bereshit, end of ch. 84, 
p. 165 ; Midr. Zuta to Cant., end of ch. 6, p. 17b. 

206 Zeph. 3, 9; Midr. Gen. R., ch. 88, sec. 7; Midr. Tanh., Noah, 
sec. 19, ed. W. ; sec. 28, ed. B. ; Midr. Lekah Tob, Lek Leka, p. 35b ; 
Wayehi, p. 118b; Aggadat Shir ha-Shirim, pp. 39-40. 

207. Midr. Tehillim, ch. 4, sec. 10, ed. B. 

208 Midr. Zuta to Cant, ch. 5, p. 16b; Aggadat Shir ha-Shinm, 
pp. 39-40; Midr. Lekah Tob, Wayera, p. Sla-b; Midr. ha-Gadol, 
Yitro, pp. 186-187. 

209. Cf. Ps. 102, 23 ; Midr. Hallel, pp. 3-4. 

210 Mekil. d'R. Shimeon, Beshallah, p. 63; Yerush., Nedarim, 
ch 3 p. 38a; Midr. Gen, R., ch. 6, sec. 3; ch. 63, sec. 8; ch. 67, 
sec 5- ch. 75, sections 1 and 5; ch. 78, sec. 5 ; Midr. Exod. R., ch. 21, 
sec 1 ; Midr. Levit. R., ch. 30, sec. 16 ; Midr. Tanh., Toledot, sections 
16 and 24, ed. B. ; Wayishlah, sections 5 and 8, ed. B. ; Wayehi, sec. 13, 
ed B • Terumah, sec. 7, ed. B.; sec, 9, ed. W. ; Zaw, sec. 4, ed, B. ; 
Midr. Tehillim, ch. 9, sec. 7, ed. B. ; Midr. Lekah Tob., Toledot, pp. 60b- 
61a; 66a-b; Wayishlah, p. 84a; Pesikta R., 12, pp. 49b-50a; 15, 
p. 78a; Pesikta d'R. Kahana, p. 54a-b; Midr. Ilaserot we-Yeterot, 



NOTES 



131 



p. 64; Pirke R. Eliezer, end of ch. 37; Otiyyot d'R. Akiba, version 1, 
p. 5a; version 2, p. 15a; Pirke d'R. ha-Kadosh, p. 30a. 

211. Midr. Gen. R., ch. 76, sec. 6; Midr. Eccles. R., ch. 5, to verse 7, 
sec. 1. 

212. Obad. 1, 21; Yerush. *Ab Zarah, ch. 2, p. 40c; Midr. Gen. R., 
ch. 78, sec. 14; Midr. Exod. R., ch. 18, sec. 5; Midr. Tanh., Noah,' 
sec. 3, ed. W.; Addition to Debarim, sec. 6, p. 3a-b, ed. R; Midr! 
Aggadah to the Pentateuch, Wayishlah, p. 85; Zaw, p. 13; Midr.' 
Lekah Tob, Wayishlah, p. 86b; Pesikta Zutarti, Debarim, p. 65b. 

213. Mekil. d'R. Ishmael, Beshallah, p. 36b; Mekil. d'R. Shimeon, 
Yitro, p. 106; Talmud, R. PL, 23a; Makkot 12a; Midr. Gen. R., ch. 16,' 
sec. 4; ch. 65, sec. 12; ch. 70, sec. 8; Midr. Exod. R., ch. 1, sec. 26;' 
ch. 9, sec. 12; ch. 15, sec. 16; ch. 30, sec. 1; Midr. Numb. R, ch. U, 
sec. 1; Midr, Cant. R., ch. 2, to verse 13, sections 3 and 4; Midr.' 
Tanh., Wa'era, sec. 13 and 17, ed. W.; sec. 15 and 22, ed. B.; Bo, 
sec, 6, ed. B. ; Terumah, sec. 6, ed. B. ; sec. 11, ed. W.; Midr. Tehillim' 
ch. 5, sec. 11, ed. B.; ch. 68, sec. 13; ch. 75, sec. 4; Pesikta R., 11, 
p. 45b; 37, p. 163a-b; Pesikta d'R. Kahana, pp. 148a and 149a- Ag- 
gadat Bereshit, ch. 57 , p. 115 ; cf. Pesahim 54b. 

214. Pesikta R., 12, p. 47a; 13, p. 56a; Midr. Gen. R, ch. 62 sec 5* 
Midr. Lekah .Tob, Lek Leka, p. 38a; Midr. IJaserot we-Yeterot p 56- 
Midr. Samuel, ch. 28, p. 45b; Midr. Tehillim, ch. 1, sec. 10, ed. B. 

215. Sotah 49b; Ketubot 112b; Sanh. 96b-98b; Derek Erez Zuta 
ch. 10; Midr. Cant. R, ch. 8, to verse 9, end of sec. 3; Midr. Lament! 
R., ch. 1, sec. 41; Midr. Eccles, R., begin, of ch. 12; Pesikta R., 1, 
p. 4b; Bet 'Eked ha-Aggadot by Horovitz, Part I, pp. 56-58; Pesikta 
Zutarti, Balak, p. 58a, 

216. Sifre, Ha'azinu, sec. 318, p. 136a; Ozar Midrashim by Wert- 
heimer, p. 35. 

217. Cf. Charles, The Book of Enoch, pp. 222; 261-262; 271-272; 
II Baruch, pp. 506-507; 517- 518; IV Ezra, pp. 569-570; 599; 621. 

218. Tosefta, Berakot, ch. 7, sec. 2; Talmud, Megillah"6a; Midr. 
Levit, R., ch, 13, sec. 2; Midr. Eccles. R., ch. 3, to verse 18, sec. 1; 
ch. 9, to verse 6, sec. 1 ; Midr, Tanh, Noah, sec. 19, ed. B.; Wayishlah', 
sec. 4, ed. W. ; Shelah, sec, 25, ed. B. ; Midr. Tehillim, ch. 2, sec. 14,' 
ed. B.; ch. 75, sec. 5; ch. 95, sec. 1; Pesikta R, 10, p. 36a; Midr! 
ha-Gadol, Wayeze, col. 466-467; Midr. Samuel, end of ch. 5, p. lib; 
cf. B. M. 33b; <Ab. Zarah, 4b; Midr. Gen. R„ ch. 83, sec. 5; Midr! 
Numb. R., ch. 2, sec. 13 ; Midr. Tanh., Noah, sec. 12, ed. W. ; Naso, 
sec. 13, ed. B.; Midr. Tehillim, ch. 4, sec. 11, ed. B. 

10 



132 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



219. Mekil. d'R. Ishmael, Beshallah, p. 25a; Sifre, Ha'azinu, sec. 333, 
p. 140a; Talmud, 'Ab Zarah 2a-b; 3a-b; 4a; Yerush., Berakot, ch. 8, 
p. 12c ; Midr. Exod. R., ch. 5, sec. 12; Midr. Eccles. R., ch. 1, to verse 9, 
sec. 1; Midr. Esther R., ch. 1, sec, 6; Midr. Tanh., Shemot, sec. 29, 
ed. W. ; Beshallah, sec. 5, ed. W. ; Shemini, sec. 14, ed. B. ; Tazria', 
sec. 16, ed. B. ; Kedoshini, sec. 1, ed. B. ; Shofetim, sec. 9, ed. B. ; 
Midr. Tehillim, ch. 31, sections 3 and 4, ed. B. ; ch. 76, sec. 4; Midr. 
Aggadah to the Pentateuch, end of Shemini, p. 27; Midr. ha-Gadol, 
Shemot, p. 30 ; Beshallah, p. 166. 

220. Midr. Exod. R., ch. 35, sec. 5 ; cf. Midr. Gen. R., ch. 83, sec. 4 ; 
Midr. Tank, Shofetim, sec. 19, ed. W. 

221. Tosefta Ta'anit, ch. 3, sec. 1 ; Mekil. d'R. Ishmael, Beshallah, 
pp. 30b-31a; p. 39a; Mekil. d'R, Shimeon, Bo, p. 14; Sifra, Behukkotai, 
p. Ilia; Sifre, Wezot ha-Berakah, sec. 357, p. 149b; Midr. Tannaim 
to Deutr., p. 4; 'Erubin 101a; Yerush., Berakot, ch. 4, p. 8a; Yerush., 
Ta'anit, ch. 2, p. 65c; Midr. Gen. R., ch. 48, sec. 6; ch. 99, sec. 8; 
Midr. Exod. R., ch. 11, sec. 2; ch. 18, sec. 7; Midr, Numb. R., ch. 18, 
end of sec. 22; sec. 23; ch. 19, end of sec. 32; ch. 21, sec. 21; 
Midr. Tanh., Wayehi, sec. 10, ed. W, ; Shemot, sec. 8, ed. W. ; Hukkat, 
sections 1 and 55, ed. B. ; Pinehas, sec. 12, ed. B. ; Midr, Tehillim, ch. 2, 
sec. 7, ed. B. ; ch. 11, sec. 5; ch. 14, sec. 6; ch. 100, sec. 3, ed. B. ; 
ch. 100, p. 139a, ed. W.; ch. 104, sec. 18, ed. B.; Pesikta R., 35, p. 161a; 
Pesikta d'R, Kahana, Wezot ha-Berakah, p. 198a; Midr. ha-Gadol, 
Bo, p. 100; Beshallah, p. 159; Midr. Aggadah to the Pentateuch, 
Bereshit, p. 5; Wayehi, p. Ill; Aggadat Shir ha-Shirim, p. 41; 
Midr. Hallel, pp. 27-28; Pirke R. Eliezer, begin, of ch. 34; Otiyyot 
d'R. Akiba, version 1, pp. 3a, 4a, 5b; cf. Tosefta. Berakot, ch. 1, 
sec. 15; Midr. Cant, R., ch, 7, to verse 3, sec. 3; Midr. Tanh., Bo, 
sections 15 and 19, ed. B.; Tezawweh, sec. 5; Aggadat Bereshit, end of 
ch. SB, p. 110. 

222. Cf. Ezek., chapters 38-39. 

223. Mekil. d'R. Shimeon Beshallah, p. 65; Sifre Beha'aloteka, 
sec. 76, p. 19b; Wezot ha-Berakah, sec. 343, p. 143a; Talmud, Shab. 
118a; Megillah 11a; Yerush. Berakot, ch. 2, p. 4d; Abot d'R. Nathan, 
version 1, ch. 34, p. 51b; Midr. Exod. R., ch. 12, sec, 2 and 7; Midr. 
Levit. R., ch. 9, sec. 6; ch. 11, sec, 2; ch. 27, sec. 11; ch. 30, sec. 5; 
Midr. Esther R., Introd., sec. 4; ch. 1, sec. 18; ch. 7, sec. 23; Midr. 
Tanh., Noah, sec. 24, ed. B. ; Lek Leka, sec. 9, ed. W. ; sec. 12, ed. B. ; 
Wa'era, sections 10 and 16, ed. W. ; Tazria', sec. 8, ed. W. ; Emor, 
sec. 18, ed. B, ; Re' eh, sec. 3, ed. B. ; sec. 9, ed. W. ; Midr. Tehillim, 
ch. 2, sections 2 and 4, ed. B. ; ch. 5, sec. 11 ; ch. 8, sec, 8; ch. 18, sec, 18; 



NOTES 



133 



ch. 26, sec. 6; ch. 68, sec. 13; ch. 118, sections 12-13; ch. 119, 
sec. 2, p. 245a; Pesikta d'R. Kahana,, p, 148a; pp. 186b~187a; Pesikta 
R., 37, p. 163a; Midr. Aggadah to the Pentateuch, Noah, p, 20; 
end of Tazria , pp. 34-35 ; Midr. ha-Gadol, Wa'era, pp. 59, 73-74 ; 
Beshallah, p. 161; Aggadat Bereshit, ch. 82, p. 157; Aggadat Esther, 
ch. 3, p. 18b; Midr. Zuta to Cant., ch. 1, pp. 5b-6a; ch. 5, pp. 15b-16a; 
Midr. Hallel, pp. 40-42; Seder Eliyahu R., ch. 1, p. 5; Pirke d'R. 
ha-Kadosh, p. 34a-b ; cf, Mishna, 'Eduyot, ch. 2, M. 10; Pesikta 
Zutarti, Behukkotai, p. 34b. 

224. Yoma 10a. 

225. Pirke R. Eliezer, end of ch. 30; cf. Mekil, d'R. Shimeon, 
Beshallah, p. 61; Midr. Numb. R., ch. 11, sec. 2; Midr. Cant. R., 
ch. 2, to verse 13, sec. 4; Midr. Tehillim, ch. 2, sec. 3, ed, B. ; Pesikta 
R., 37, p. 163a; Pesikta d'R. Kahana, p. 51a-b; Midr. ha-Gadol, 
Beshallah, p. 157; Midr. Wayosha', ch. 22, pp. 31-32. 

226. Cf. Mekil. d'R. Shimeon, Addition to Wa'era, p. 173; Talmud, 
Megillah 15b; Yebamot 47a; Yerush. Berakot, ch. 2, p. 5a; Midr. 
Numb. R., ch. 21, sec. 22; Midr. Cant. R., ch. 7, to verse 1, sec. 2; 
Midr. Tanh., Noah, sec. 12, ed. B. ; Emor, sec. 12; Midr. Aggadah to 
the Pentateuch, end of £aw, p . 18., ed. B. ; Midr. Tehillim, ch. 14, 
sec. 3; ch. 22, sec. 3; ch. 31, sec. 6; ch. 96, sec. 2; ch. 97, sec. 2; 
ch. 138, sec, 2, ed. B. ; Aggadat Bereshit, ch. 23, p. 48 ; Nispahim 
l'Seder Eliyahu Zuta, Pirke ha-Yeridot, ch. 3, p. 56; Midr. ha-Gadol, 
Wayishlah, col. 513-514; Otiyyot d'R. Akiba, version 2, pp. 16b-17a. 

227. Is. 11, 4. 

228. Ps. 121, 1-2; Midr. Tanh., Toledot, sec. 20, ed. B. ; Aggadat 
Bereshit, ch. 45, pp. 89-90. 

229. The Assumption of Moses, ch. 12, p. 424; cf. The Book of 
Enoch, ch. 50, p. 218. 

230. Mekil. d'R. Ishmael, Beshallah, p. 56a; Mekil. d'R. Shimeon, 
Beshallah, p. 42; Talmud, R. H. 31a; Midr. Levit. R., ch. 13, sec. 5; 
Midr. Deutr. R., ch. 1, sec. 20; Midr. Lament. R., at end of ch. 3; 
Midr, Tanh., Wayera, sec. 4, ed. B. ; Toledot, sec. 8, ed, W, ; Beshallah, 
sec. 7, ed. W.; Debarim, sec. 3, ed. B.; Midr. Tehillim, ch. 8, sec. 8, 
ed. B.; ch. 47, sec, 2; ch. 97, sec, 1; ch. 121, sec. 3; ch. 150, sec. 1; 
Pesikta d'R. Kahana, p. 51a; Midr. ha-Gadol, Beshallah, p. 185; Agga- 
dat Bereshit, ch. 58, p. 116; Midr. Haserot we-Yeterot, p. 25;. Pirke R. 
Eliezer, end of ch, 11. 

231. Midr. Tehillim, ch. 66, sec. 1, ed. B. 

232. Is. 5, 16; Midr. Tanh., Kedoshim, sec. 1, ed. B. 




134 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



NOTES 



135 



233. Cf. Seder Eliyahu Zuta, ch. 12, p. 194; Aggadat Shir ha-Shirim, 
p. 37. 

234. Pesahim 118b; Midr. Gen. R., ch. 78, sec. 12; Midr, Numb. R., 
ch. 13, sec. 14; Midr. Lekah Tob, Wayishlah, p. 86b; Wayehi, p. 118a. 

235. Midr. Esther R., ch. 1, sec. 4. 

236. Midr. Cant. R., ch. 4, to verse 8, sec. 2; Midr. Tehillim, ch. 87, 
sec. 6, ed. B. 

237. Midr. Zuta to Cant., ch. 6, p. 17a; Aggadat Shir ha-Shirim, 
p. 41; Midr. Aggadah to the Pentateuch, Balak, p. 142; Midr. Lekah 
Tob, Wayehi, p. 118a; Midr. ha-Gadol, Wayehi, col. 738. 

238. Ps. 2, 8; Sukkah 52a; Midr. Gen. R., ch. 44, sec. 8; Midr. 
Tehillim, ch. 2, sec. 10, ed. B. 

239. Is. 2, 2-3; Tosefta Menahot, ch. 13, sec. 23; Sifre, Debarim, 
sec. 1, p. 65a; Wezot ha-Berakah, sec. 352, p. 145b; Talmud, Pesahim, 
88a. 

240. Midr. Tanh., Addition to Debarim, sec. 3, ed. B. ; Pesikta d'R. 
Kahana, pp. 144b-145a. 

241. Jcr. 3, 17; Pesikta d'R. Kahana, p. 143a-b ; Abot d'R. Nathan, 
version 1, end of ch. 35, p. 53b. 

242. Hosea 2, 1; Midr. Numb. R., ch. 2, sec. 14; ch. 20, end of 
sec. 25 ; Midr. Tanh., Ki Tissa, sec. 8, ed. B. ; Balak, sec. 21, ed. W. ; 
sec. 30, ed. B, ; Pesikta d'R. Kahana, p. 18b. 

243. Tosefta, Kid., ch. 5, sec. 4; Talmud, Kid., 72b. 

244. Kid. 72b. 

245. Yerush. Kid., end of ch. 3, p. 65a, top. 

246. Yerushalmi Fragments, p. 234. 

247. Midr. Levi!. R., ch. 32, sec. 8; Midr. Eccles. R., ch. 4, to 
verse 7, sec. 1; cf. Mishnah 'Eduyot, ch. 8, M. 7; Tosefta 'Eduyot, 
ch. 3, sec. 4; Midr. Levit. R., ch. 32, sec. 1; Midr. Cant. R., ch. 4, 
to verse 12, sec. 5 ; Abot d'R. Nathan, version 1, ch. 12, p. 27a. 

248. Cf. Midr. Eccles. R., ch. 1, to verse 7, sec. 6. 

249. Mekil. d'R. Ishmael, Mishpatim, p. 95b; Talmud, Berakot 57b; 
Pesahim 87b; Megillah 17b; Treatise Gerim, ch. 4, p. 79, ed. Higger; 
Midr. Exod. R., ch. 19, sec. 4; Midr. Levit. R., ch. 2, sec. 9; ch. 3, 
sec. 2; Midr. Numb. R. ch. 8, sections 1, 2 and 9; Midr. Tanh., 
Wayeze, sec. 22, ed. B. ; Pesikta R., 35, p. 165a ; Midr. Tehillim, ch. 22, 
sec. 29, ed. B. ; ch. 68, sec. 15; Seder Eliyahu R., ch. 7, p. 35; ch. 18, 
p. 105 ; cf. 'Ab Zarah, lOa-b. 

250. Sifre, Wezot ha-Berakah, sec. 354, p. 147a. 

251. Zeph. 3, 9; Midr. Tanh., Wayera, sec. 38, ed. B.; cf. Yerush. 
Megillah, ch. 1, p. 72b; ch. 3, p. 74a; Yerush, Sanh., ch. 10, p. 29c; 



Midr. Levit. R., ch. 1, sec. 2; Midr. Tehillim, ch. 18, sec. 34, ed. B.; 
Seder Eliyahu R., ch. 18, p. 91. 

252. Yebamot 24b; "Ab Zarah 3b; cf. ( Ab Zarah 24a. 

253. Nicldah 13b; cf. Kallah Rabbati, ch. 2. 

254. Mekil. d'R. Shimeon, Beshallah, p. 84; Midr. Numb, R, ch. 8, 
sec. 4; Seder Eliyahu R., ch. 27, p. 146; cf. Is. 66, 3-8; 'Ab Zarah, 
lOa-b. 

255. Sifre, Ha'azinu, sec. 315, p. 135a; Midr. Levit. R., ch. 36, sec. 2; 
Midr. Tehillim, ch. 31, sec. 5, ed. B.; Midr. ha-Gadol, Wayishlah, 
col. 523; cf. Midr. Deutr. R., ch. 1, sec. 14; Midr. Lekah Tob, 
Wayeze, p. 72a; Midr. Aggadah to the Pentateuch, Mishpatim, p. 164. 

256. Zech. 14, 9; Sefer Mazref by R. Berechio ha-Nakdan, p. 71. 

257. Midr. ha-Gadol, Wayishlah, col. 547-548; cf. Midr. Tehillim, 
begin, of ch. 21, p. 64a-b, ed. W. ; Midr. Hallel, p. 27. 

258. Midr. Tehillim, ch. 20, sec. 10, ed, B,.; end of ch. 20, p. 64a ed. W. 

259. Is, 49, 22 ; Midr. Tehillim, ch. 4, sec. 10, ed. B. 

260. Is. 49, 7; Midr. Levit. R., ch. 27, sec. 4; ch. 33, sec. 6; Midr. 
Eccles. R., ch. 3, to verse 15, sec. 1 ; Midr. Cant. R., ch. 6, to verse 
11, sec. 1; Midr, Tanh., Mishpatim, sec. 3, ed. B. ; Emor, sec. 32; 
Midr. ha-Gadol, Hayye Sarah, col. 349; Aggadat Bereshit, end of 
ch. 19, p. 17b; Midr. Samuel, ch. 16, p. 26a; Seder Eliyahu Zuta, ch. 15, 
p. 199; cf. Midr. Tanh., Emor, sec. 12, ed. B,; Seder Eliyahu R., ch. 20, 
pp. 120-121 ; Midr. ha-Gadol, Wayishlah, col 517. 

261. Megillah 11a; Aggadat Esther, ch. 1, p. 3a. 

262. Midr. Cant. R., ch. 1, to verse 5, sec. 1; Midr. Tehillim, ch. 
146, sec. 6, ed. B. 

263. Midr. Levit. R., ch. 32, sec. 1 ; Pesikta R., 34, p. 159a. 

264. Pesikta Zutarti, Ha'azinu, p. 89b. 

265. Midr. Numb. R., ch. 14, sec. 2 ; cf. Midr. Gen. R., ch. 88, sec. 7 ; 
Midr. Cant. R,, ch. 4, to verse 8, sec. 2. 

266. Midr. ha-Gadol, Shemot, p. 46. 

267. Ps. 126, 2; Mekil. d'R. Ishmael, Beshallah, p. 34a; Mekil. d'R. 
Shimeon, Beshallah, p. 56; Talmud, Berakot 31a; Midr. ha-Gadol, 
Beshallah, p. 151. 

268. Midr. Tehillim, ch. 75, sec. 1, ed. B.; end of ch. 118, p. 166b, 
ed. W. ; Midr. Hallel, p. 45 ; cf. Pesikta Zutarti, Balak, p. 57b. 

269. Is. 2, 4; Micah 4, 3. 

270. Shab. 63a; Pesikta d'R. Kahana, p. 187a; cf. Yerush. Shab,, 
ch. 6, p. 8b. 

271. Shab. 63a; Sanh. 99a, 

272. Shab. ibid.; Sanh. ibid. 



■ 



136 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



NOTES 



137 



273. Cf. Sukkah 52b; Massektot Zeerot, pp. 101, 105, ed. Higger; 
Midr. Levit. R., ch. 9, end of sec. 9; Midr. Tehillim, end of ch. 120, 
p. 176a, ed. W. ; Aggadat Esther, ch. 9, p. 41b. 

274. Midr. Tanh., Shofetim, sec. 19, ed. W. ; Pesikta R., p. 161a; 
Midr. Tehillim, ibid.; cf. Massektot Zeerot, ibid.; Midr. Levit. R., 
ibid.; Aggadat Esther, ibid.; Midr. Wayosha*, ch. 18, p. 28. 

275. Massektot Ze'erot, p. 101 ; cf. Aggadat Esther, ibid. 

276. Massektot Ze'erot, p. 102. 

277. Sifre Zuta, p. 52; Midr. Eccles. R., ch. 3, to verse 8, sec, 2; 
cf. Midr. ha-Gadol, Bereshit, col. 127-128. 

278. Cf. R. H. 18b; Massektot Zeerot, pp. 102, 104, 105; Midr. 
Levit R., ch. 9, end of sec, 9; Midr. Tanh., Zaw, sec. 10, ed. B. ; 
Pesikta R., Addition to 3, p. 199b; Aggadat Bereshit, end of ch, 79, 
p, 152; Midr. Zuta to Cant, ch. 4, p. 15a; Selihot for Fourth Day 
of the Ten Days of Repentance, pp. 503-506. 

279. Ps. 44, 4 and 7; Midr. ha-Gadol, Wayehi, col. 728-729. 

280. Mai. 3, 24; Mishnah, 'Eduyot, ch. 8, M. 7; Sifre, 'Ekeb, 
sec. 41, p. 79b ; Wezot ha-Berakah, sec. 342, p. 142a ; Yerush. Shab., 
ch. 1, p. 3c; Midr. Deutr. R., ch. 3, sec. 17; ch. 6, sec. 7; Midr. Cant. 
R., ch. 4, to verse 12, sec. 5 ; Midr. Aggadah to the Pentateuch, begin, 
of Pinehas, p. 148; Pirke R. Eliezer, end of ch. 29, and end of ch. 43. 

281. Is. 54, 13; Midr. Aggadah to the Pentateuch, Wayikra, p. 9; 
Pesikta d'R. Kahana, p. 107a; cf. Midr. ha-Gadol, Bereshit, col. 126-128. 

282. Is. 11, 6-9; Sifra, Behukkotai, p. Ilia; Midr. Gen. R., ch. 95, 
sec. 1; Midr. Exod. R., ch. 15, sec. 21; Midr. Eccles. R., ch. 1, to 
verse 9, sec. 1 ; Midr. Tanh., Wayiggash, sec. 8, ed. W. ; sec. 9, 
ed. B.; Aggadat Bereshit, ch. 79, p. 151 ; Seder Eliyahu R., ch. 2, p. 7; 
cf. Menorat ha-Maor by R. Isaac Aboab, ch. 311. 

283. The Book of Enoch, ch. 90, p. 260. 

284. II Baruch, ch. 73, p. 518, 

285. Zech. 3, 10 ; Midr. Tehillim, ch, 72, sec. 3, ed. B. ; cf. Menorat 
ha-Maor by R, Isaac Aboab, ch. 311. 

286. Midr. ha-Gadol, Mikkez, col. 617. 

287. The Sibylline Books, Book III, pp. 391-392. 

288. Cf. Midr. Tannaim to Deutr., p. 84; Talmud, B. B, 10a; Midr. 
Exod. R., ch. 31, sec. 3 and 14. 

289. Deutr. 15, 11; Shab. 63a; cf. Rashi ad he. 

290. Cf. Berakot 34b; Shab. 63a; 151b; Pesahim 68a; Sanh., 91b. 

291. Deutr. 15, 4. 

292. Deutr. 15, 11. 

293. Midr. Levit. R., ch. 2, sec. 6. 



294. Cf. Midr, Gen. R., ch. 75, sec. 1 ; Midr. Exod. R,, ch. 31, sec. 5 
and 13; Midr. Tanh., Toledot, sec. 14, ed, W.; sec, 20, ed. B. 

295. Midr. Tehillim, ch. 72, sec. 5, ed. B. ; Aggadat Bereshit, ch. 45, 
pp. 89-90; cf. Sanh., lOOa-b; Yerush., Berakot, ch. 2, p. 5a; Midr. Gen. 
R., ch. 76, sec. 6; Midr. Tehillim, ch. 41, sec. 4, ed, B. 

296. Ps. 12, 6; Midr. Exod. R., ch. 17, sec. 4. 

297. Midr. Mishle, ch. 13, to verse 23, p. 37a. 

298. Geyserland, by Richard Hatfield, pp. 104-105, 

299. Midr. Tehillim, ch. 72, sec. 3-4, ed. B. ; ch. 82, sec. 2-3 ; Midr. 
Mishle, ch. 22, to verses 22-23, p. 47a; cf. Sanh., 98a; Menorat ha- 
Maor by R. Isaac Aboab, ch. 311. 

300. B. B. 116a. 

301. Mekil, d'R. Shimeon, Yitro, p. 95; Midr. ha-Gadol, Yitro,, 
pp. 204-205. 

302. Cf. Midr. Eccles. R., ch. 1, to verse 7, sec. 9 ; Midr. ha-Gadol, 
Bereshit, col. 31 ; Midr. Zuta to Cant., ch, 7, p. 18a. 

303. Sifra, Behukkotai, p. 110b; Sifre, Ha'azinu, sec. 315, p. 135a-b; 
sec. 317, pp. 135b-136a; Midr. Tannaim to Deutr., pp. 173-174; Talmud, 
shab. 30b; Yoma 21b; 39b; Ketubot 111b; Yerush., Shebut, end of 
ch, 4, p. 35 c; Shekalim, ch. 6, p. 50a, ed. Krotoshin; Midr. Gen. R., 
ch. 10, sec, 4; ch. i2, sec. 6; Midr. Numb. R., ch. 12, sec. 4; ch. 13, 
sec. 12; Midr. Eccles. R., ch. 8, to verse 9, sec. 1; Midr. Cant. R., 
ch. 3, to verse 10, sec. 3; Midr. Tanh., Bereshit, sec. 18, ed. B. ; 
Tezawweh, sec. 10; Kedoshim, sec. 7; Midr. Lekah Tob, Bereshit, 
p. 9b ; Tezawweh, p, 96b ; Midr. Tehillim, ch. 72, sec. 3 and 6, ed. B. ; 
ch. 104, p. 147a, ed. W. ; Midr. Mishle, ch, 23, to verse 5, p. 47b ; Midr. 
ha-Gadol, Bereshit, col. 65-66; Wayiggash, col. 674-675; cf, Midr. 
ha-Gadol, Bereshit, col. 75. 

304. Joel 4, 18. 

305. Ketubot 111b; Sanh. 70a; 99a; Midr. Gen. R., ch. 42, sec. 3; 
ch. 51, sec, 8; Midr. Levit. R., ch. 12, end of sec. 5; Midr. Eccles. R., 
ch. 11, to verse 1, end of sec. 1; Midr. Tanh., Noah, sec. 21, ed. B. ; 
Terumah, sec. 9; Shemini, sec. 9; Midr. Lekah Tob, Wayeze, p. 72b; 
Midr. Aggadah to the Pentateuch, p. 25; Midr. ha-Gadol, end of 
Mikkez, col. 656; cf. Midr, Numb. R., ch. 13, sec. 2; Midr. Lekah 
Tob, Wayehi, pp. 118b-119a ; Yellinek, Bet ha-Midrash, vol. 3, pp. 74, 77. 

306. Shab. 30b; Kallah R„ ch. 2; Midr. ha-Gadol, Wayiggash, 
col. 674-675, 

307. Mekil, d'R. Shimeon, Yitro, p. 95 ; Midr. Tanh., Toledot, sec. 9, 
ed. W. ; Midr. Tehillim, ch. 45, sec. 7, ed. B, ; Midr, ha-Gadol, Yitro, 
pp. 204-205. 



138 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



308. Cf. Sifra, Behukkotai, p. 11 la; Abot d'R. Nathan, version 2, 
ch. 43, p. 60b; Midr. Tanh., Naso, sec. 29, ed. B. ; Aggadat Bereshit, 
ch. 23, p. 47; Aggadat Shir ha-Shirim, pp. 18, 107; Midr. ha-Gadol, 
Bereshit, col. 126-127; Wayiggash, col 696; Shemot, p. 6; Bet ha- 
Midrash by Yellinek, vol. 3, pp. 76-77. 

309. Richard Hatfield in Geyserland, p. 105. 

310. The Book of Enoch, ch. 10, pp. 194-195. 

311. Yebamot 63a; Ketubot 111b ; Kallah R., ch. 2; Midr. Gen. R., 
ch. 42, sec. 3; ch. 77, sec. 1; Midr. Levit. R., ch. 35, sec. 12; Midr. 
Eccles. R., ch. 1, to verse 9, sec. 1; ch. 11, to verse 1, end of sec. 1 ; 
Midr. Cant. R., ch. 4, to verse 12, sec. 3 ; Midr. Ruth R., ch. 5, sec. 6 ; 
Midr. Tehillim, ch. 72, sec. 3, ed. B. 

312. B. B. 122a. 

313. Midr. Gen. R., ch. 86, sec. 1; Midr. Tanh., Bereshit, sec. 6, 
ed. W.; Mikkez, sec. 17, ed. B. ; Pinehas, sec. 14, ed. W. ; Midr. 
Aggadah to the Pentateuch, Kedoshim, pp. 47-48; Midr. ha-Gadol, 
Bereshit, col. 126-130; Bet ha-Midrash by Yellinek, vol. 3, p. 67. 

314. Midr. Exod. R., ch. 25, sec. 3. 

315. Midr. Tehillim, ch. 145, sec. 1, ed. B. ; Pesikta d'R. Kahana, 
p. 189b; Midr. ha-Gadol, Mikkez, col. 617; Menorat ha-Maor by 
R. Isaac Aboab, ch. 311. 

316. The Book of Enoch, chapters 10-11, p. 195; cf. The Sibylline 
Books, Book III, p. 389, and Book V, p. 402. 

317. Ps. 128, 2; Midr. Tehillim, begin, of ch. 146, p. 191b, ed. W.; 
ch. 146, sec. 2, ed. B. 

318. Midr. Levit. R., ch. 25, sec. 8; Midr. Cant. R., ch. 5, to verse 15, 
sec. 2; Midr. Eccles. R., ch. 1, to verse 4, at end of last sec; cf. Midr. 
Tanh., Beshallah, sec. 24, ed. B. 

319. Midr. Tehillim, ch. 87, sec. 3, ed. B. 

320. Cf. B. B. 75a; Sanh, 100a; Pesikta R., 32, p. 149a; Pesikta d'R. 
Kahana, pp. 136b-137b; Yellinek, Bet ha-Midrash, vol. 6, p. 118. 

321. B. B. 15b-16a; 17a; Midr. Gen. R., ch, 73, sec. 11 ; Midr. Eccles. 
R., ch. 9, to verse 11, sec. 1 ; Midr. Tanh., Wayeze, sec. 24, ed. B. ; Midr. 
Lekah Tob, Wayeze, p. 78b. 

322. Abot d'R. Nathan, version 2, ch. 43, p. 60b; Pesikta R., 29, 
p. 140a-b. 

323. Cf. Berakot 58b ; Midr. Tehillim, begin, of ch. 125, p. 178a-b, 
ed. W. ; Yellinek, Bet ha-Midrash, vol. 3, p. 68. 

324. Is. 23, 18; Sifre, Wezot ha-Berakah, sec. 354, p. 147a; Talmud, 
Pesahim 119a; Sanh. 110a; Midr. Exod. R., ch. 31, sec. 5; end of 
sec. 17; Midr. Eccles, R., ch. 1, to verse 7, sec. 9; Midr. Tanh., 



NOTES 



139 



Toledot, sec. 24, ed. B.; Beshallah, sec. 14; Midr. ha-Gadol, Bereshit, 
col. 31; end of Wayishlah, col. 548; Wayiggash, col. 694; Sefer 
Basidim by R. Judah He-Hasid, sec. 1114, Bologna 1538. 

325. Sifra, Behukkotai, p. Ilia; Talmud, Berakot, 43b; Abot d'R. 
Nathan, version 2, ch. 43, p. 60b; Midr. Gen. R., ch. 12, sec. 6; Midr. 
Numb. R., ch, 13, sec. 12; Midr. Tanh., Bereshit, sec. 6, ed. W. ; sec. 
18, ed. B.; 'Ekeb sec. 7, ed. W,; Midr. Lekah Tob, Bereshit, p. 9b; 
Midr. Tehillim, ch. 145, sec. 1, ed. B. ; Aggadat Bereshit, ch. 23, p. 47; 
Midr. ha-Gadol, Bereshit, col. 65-66, 126-127; Wayeze, col. 467; 
Otiyyot d'R. Akiba, version 2, p. 19a; Bet ha-Midrash by Yellinek, 
vol. 3, pp. 76-77. 

326. Is. 61, 9; Midr. ha-Gadol, Wayesheb, col. 582. 

327. Mekil d'R. Ishmael, Beshallah, p. 46a; Mekil. d'R. Shimeon, 
Beshallah, p. 74; Midr. Exod. R., ch. 15, sec, 21; Otiyyot d'R. Akiba, 
version 2, p. 14b ; cf. Midr. ha-Gadol, Bereshit, col. 65-66. 

328. Yerush. Shekalim, ch. 6, p. 50a, ed. Krotoshin; Midr. Gen, R., 
ch. 77, sec. 1 ; ch. 95, sec. 1 ; Midr. Deutr. R., ch. 1, sec. 1 ; Midr. Eccles. 
R., ch. 1, to verse 4, sec. 2; Midr. Cant. R., ch. 4, to verse 12, sec. 4; 
Midr. Tanh., Wayiggash, sec. 8, ed. W. ; sec. 9, ed. B. ; Mezora 1 , 
sec. 7, ed. B.; Aggadat Bereshit, ch. 56, p. 113; ch. 79, p. 151; Midr. 
Tehillim, ch. 146, sec. 5, ed. B.; Pesikta d'R. Kahana, p. 55a; cf. 
Mekil. d'R. Ishmael, Beshallah, p. 34a ; Mekil. d'R. Shimeon, Beshallah, 
p. 56; Midr. Levit. R., ch. 27, sec. 4; Midr. Eccles. R., ch. 3, to verse 
15, sec. 1 ; Midr. Tanh., Emor, sec. 12, ed. B. ; Midr. Tehillim, end 
of ch. 23, p. 72a, ed. W. ; Midr. ha-Gadol, Beshallah, p. 151. 

329. Is. 66, 7 ; Midr. Levit. R., ch. 14, sec. 9. 

330. Is. 25, 8; Mishnah, M. K. 28b; Midr. Exod. R., ch. 15, sec. 
21 ; ch. 30, sec. 3 ; Midr. Eccles. R., ch. 1, to verse 4, sec. 3 ; Midr. 
Tanh., Wayehi, sec. 3, ed. W. ; Pesikta d'R. Kahana, p. 189b; Aggadat 
Bereshit, ch, 38, p. 76. 

331. Midr. Exod. R., ch. 30', sec. 3; cf. Midr. Tanh., Bereshit, sec. 
23, ed. B. 

332. Is. 65, 19; Midr. Tanh., Wayehi, sec. 3, ed. W. ; sec. 7, ed, B. 

333. Cf. Yerush. Megillah, ch. 2, p. 73b ; Yerush. M. K., ch. 3, p. 83b ; 
Abot d'R. Nathan, version 2, ch. 32, p. 36a; Midr. Levit. R., ch. 11, 
sec. 9; Midr. Cant. R., ch. 1, to verse 3, sec. 3; Midr. Lament. R., 
ch. 1, sec. 41; Midr. Tanh., Emor, sec. 3, ed. W.J Midr. Tehillim, 
ch. 119, sec. 17, ed. B.; Pesikta R., 37, p. 163b; Midr. Samuel, end of 
ch. 24, p. 39b; Seder Eliyahu R., ch. 2, p. 7; Midr. Hallel, p. 4; Midr. 
Wayosha', begin, of ch. 22, p. 31 ; Otiyyot d'R. Akiba, version 1, p. 8a ; 
Yellinek, Bet ha-Midrash, vol. 3, p. 74. 




140 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



334. Is. 65, 20; Midr. Tehillim, ch. 1, p. 5a-b, ed. W. ; ch. 1, sec. 12, 
ed. B.; Midr. Lekah Tob, Bereshit, p. 16b; Bet ha-Midrash by Yelli- 
nek, vol. 6, p. 119; cf. Pesahim 68a; Abot d'R, Nathan, version 2, 
ch. 43, p. 60b ; Midr, Gen. R., ch. 26, sec, 2. 

335. Midr. Tanh., Yitro, sec. 17, ed. W. 

336. Midr. Tank, Kedoshim, sec, 14, ed. B. ; Midr. Aggadah to the 
Pentateuch, end of Kedoshim, p. 50. 

337. Midr. Deutr. R., ch. 2, sec. 30. 

338. The Book of Jubilees, ch. 23, p. 49. 

339. The Book of Enoch, ch. 25, p. 205. 

340. II Baruch, ch. 73, p. 518. 

341. Cf. The Book of the Secrets of Enoch, ch. 65, pp. 467-468. 

342. Aggadat Esther, ch. 8, p. 35b; Midr. Haserot we-Yeterot, 
p. 74. 
" 343. Pesikta d'R. Kahana, p. 189b. 

344. Pesikta d'R. Kahana, ibid. 

345. Midr. Pliah, sec. 49, Warsaw 1895. 

346. Zeph. 3, 15; Seder Eliyahu R., ch. 18, p. 96; cf. Midr. Exod. 
R., ch. 19, sec. 1 ; Midr. Tanh., Ki Tabo, sec. 4, ed. W. 

347. Mashmi'a Yeshuah, p. 40b. 

348. Cf. Sifre Ha'azinu, sec. 309, p. 133b; Midr. Tannaim to Deutr., 
p. 212; Talmud, Sanh. Ilia; Midr. Gen. R., ch. 88, sec, 5; Midr. Exod. 
R., ch. 1, sec. 5; ch. 14, end of sec. 3; ch. 15, sec. 11; ch. 18, sec, 7; 
Midr. Numb. R., ch. 11, sec. 2; Midr. Tanh., Toledot, sec. 17, ed. B.; 
Wa'era, sec. 15; Midr. Tehillim, ch, 29, sec. 2, ed. B.; ch. 107, sec. 4; 
Midr. Lekah Tob, Bereshit, p. 3b; Pesikta d'R. Kahana, p. 49b; Midr. 
Zuta to Cant, ch. 1, p. 7a; Pirke d'R. Eliezer, begin, of ch. 34; Midr. 
Wayosha, end of ch. 7, pp. 15-16; ch. 20, p. 30; Pesikta Zutarti, begin, 
of Masse'e, p. 63a; Ha'azinu, p. 89b. 

349. Midr. Levit. R,, ch. 23, sec. 6. 

350. Cf. Yerush. Berakot, ch. 5, p. 9a. 

351. Midr. Tanh., Pekude, sec. 8, ed. W. ; cf. Midr. Tehillim, ch. 68, 
sec. 15, ed. B.; ch. 149, sec. 5. 

352. Shab. 63a; 151b. 

353. Yerush, Taanit, ch. 2, p. 65c; Midr. Gen. R. ch, 38, end of sec. 
13; ch. 68, sec. 10; Midr. Levit R., ch. 24, sec. 4; Midr. Tanh., 
Wayehi, sec. 18, ed. B.; IHukkat, sec. 28; Debarim, sec. 1; Midr, 
Tehillim, ch. 53, sec. 2, ed. B. ; ch. 99, sec. 1 ; Pesikta d'R. Kahana, 
p. 41b; Midr. Lekah Tob, Wayehi, p. 118b; Aggadat Bereshit, begin. 
of ch. 54, pp. 107-108; Midr. Zuta to Lament., pp. 28a, 33b, 37b, 42b; 
Midr. Zuta to Eccles., ch. 1, p. 57b; cf. Gen, R., ch. 75, sec. 8; 





NOTES 



141 



ch. 100, sec. 13 ; Aggadat Bereshit, begin, of ch, 83, p. 158 ; Midr. Mishle, 
ch. 27, to verse 23, p. 51b. 

354. Is, 14, 32; Midr. Exod, R., ch. 31, sec. 13. 

355. Sifre. Behaaloteka, sec. 77, p. 20a. 

356. Cf. Treatise Soferim ch. 13, sec. 13; Midr. ha-Gadol, rlayye 
Sarah, col. 379; Midr. Wayosha, ch. 21, p. 31. 

357. Is. 52, 7, 

358. Is. 40, 9; Midr. ha-Gadol, Wayiggash, col. 696; cf. Yerush., 
Sukkah, ch. 5, p. 55b. 

359. Mekil. d'R. Shimeon, Beshallah, p. 70; Midr. Lament. R., ch. 2, 
sec. 17; Midr. Tanh., 'Ekeb, sec. 7, ed. W. ; Midr. Tehillim, ch. 149, 
sec. 1, ed. B.; Midr. ha-Gadol, Beshallah, p. 166; Midr. Wayosha', ch. 
18, pp.28-29; cf. Midr. Numb. R., ch. 11, sec. 1 ; Pesikta R., 34, p. 159a. 

360. Midr. Tehillim, ch. 99, sec. 1, ed. B. 

361. Mekil. d'R. Ishmael, Beshallah, p. 30b; Midr. Exod. R., ch. 15, 
sec. 17. 

362. Midr. Tehillim, ch. 92, sec. 11, ed. B. 

363. Midr. Lekah Tob, end of Shemot, p. 15b; end of Beshallah, p. 
60b; Midr. Zuta to Cant., ch. 3, p. 14a; Aggadat Shir ha-Shirim, pp. 34- 
35; Menorat ha-Maor by R. Isaac Aboab, ch. 311. 

364. Treatise Soferim, ch. 14, sec. 12; Midr. Exod. R., ch. 30, 
sec. 24; Midr. Numb. R., ch. 5, sec. 6; Midr. Tanh., Wayishlah, sec. 
10, ed. W.; Ahare Mot, sec. 13 and 18, ed. B, ; Midr. Tehillim, 
ch, 67, sec. 1, ed. B.; ch. 107, sec. 1; Midr. Lekah Tob, end of Noah, 
p. 28a ; cf. Midr. Tehillim, ch. 149, sec. 3, ed. B. ; Midr. Aggadah to 
the Pentateuch, end of Behar, p. 65; Midr. ha-Gadol, Shemot, pp, 
21-22; Pesikta Zutarti, end of Behar, p. 33b; Tur Orah !Hayyim, 
end of ch. 122. 

365. Pesikta d'R. Kahana, p. 144a-b. 

366. Mekil. d'R, Shimeon, Beshallah, p. 70; Midr. Cant. R„ ch, 2, 
to verse 13, sec, 4. 

367. Mekil. d'R. Ishmael, Bo, p. 16b; Sifre Behaaloteka, sec. 84, p. 
22b; Masse'e, sec. 161, pp. 62b-63a; Talmud, Megillah 29a; Pesikta 
Zutarti, Massee, p. 64a; cf. Yerush. Taanit, ch. 1, p. 64a. 

368. Midr. Tanh., Pekude, sec. 11, ed. W. ; cf. Pesikta R., 33, p. 156b. 

369. Is. 66, 12; Midr. Deutr. R., ch. 5, sec. 15; Midr. Cant R., 
ch. 7, to verse 1, sec. 1 ; Midr, Aggadah to the Pentateuch, Zaw, p. 16 ; 
cf. Pesikta R,, 35, p. 161a. 

370. Midr. Tanh., Nizzabim, sec. 4, ed. B. 

371. Sifre, Ha'azinu, sec. 324, p. 139a; Talmud, Megillah, 17b-18a; 
Pesikta R., 31, p. 145a; Midr. Zuta to Cant., ch. 2, p. 12b. 



142 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



372. Cf. Yerush. Berakot ch. 4, p. 8a ; Yerush. Ta anit, ch. 2, p. 65c ; 
Midr. Gen. R., ch. 70, sec. 8; ch. 99, sec. 8; Midr. Exod. R„ ch. 30, 
sec. 1 ; Midr. Levit. R., ch. 29, sec. 2; Midr. Numb, R., ch. 14, sec. 1 ; 
Midr. Eccles, R., ch. 12, to verse 9, sec. 1 ; Midr. Tanh., Wayeze, 
sec. 2, ed. W. ; Wayehi, sec. 10, ed. W. ; Wa'era, sec. 17, ed. W. ; sec. 
22, ed. B,; Terumah, sec. 6, ed. B. ; Midr. Lekah Tob, Wayehi, 
p. 118a-b. 

373. Is. 60, 1; Midr, Tehillim, ch. 119, sec. 34, ed. B. ; cf. Midr. 
Gen. R., ch. 98, sec. 9; Midr. Levit. R., ch. 27, sec. 7. 

374. Is. 27, 13 ; Midr. Gen. R., ch. 56, sec. 2 ; Midr. ha-Gadol, Wayera, 
col. 320-321 ; Shemot, pp. 42-43. 

375. Mekil. d'R. Ishmael, Beshallah, pp. 24b, 37a; Mekil. d'R. 
Shimeon, Beshallah, p. 60; Midr. Exod. R., ch. 19, sec. 6; ch. 29, end 
of sec. 9; Midr. Tanh., JIayye Sarah, sec. 10, ed. B.; Pesikta R., 
31, p. 146b; Midr. ha- Gadol, end of Wayeze, col. 496; cf. Midr. Levit. 
R., ch. 7, sec. 6; Midr. Deutr. R., ch. 11, sec. 10; Midr. Lament. 
R., ch. 1. sec. 57; ch. 3, sec. 70; Midr. Tanh., Wayera, sec. 5, ed. B.; 
Aggadat Bereshit, end of ch. 48, p. 97. 

376. Midr. Gen. R., ch. 99, sec, 11 ; Midr. Exod. R., ch. 3, end of sec. 
4; ch. 31, sec. 10 ; ch. 32, sec. 9 ; Midr. Numb. R., ch. 16, end of sec. 11 ; 
Midr. Tanh., Toledot, sec. 14, ed. W.; Wayesheb, sec. 13, ed. B. ; 
Wayehi, sec. 12, ed. B. ; Mishpatim, sec. 12, ed. B.; sec, 18, ed. W.; 
Shelah, sec. 11, ed. B.; Midr. Aggadah to the Pentateuch, Mishpatim, 
p. 162; Midr. Mishle, ch. 6, to verse 11, p. 28a; Pesikta R., 33, 
p. 153b; cf. Midr. Aggadah to the Pentateuch, end of Pekude, pp. 
191-192. 

377. Is. 25, 9; Midr, Exod. R., ch. 23, sec. 15; Midr. Tanh., 'Ekeb, 
sec. 6, ed. B.; cf. Midr. Lekah Tob, Wayehi, p. 119a; Midr. ha-Gadol, 
Yitro, p. 206 ; We-Hizhir, Yitro, p. 36b. 

378. Mekil. d'R. Ishmael, Beshallah, p. 34b; Mekil. d'R. Shimeon, 
Beshallah, p. 57; Sifre, Ha'azinu, sec. 324, p. 139a; Yerush. Shebi'it, 
ch, 6, p. 36b; Yerush. !Kid., end of ch, 1, p. 61d; Midr. Gen. R., ch. 92, 
sec. 3; Midr. Exod. R., ch. 23, sec. 11; Midr. Cant. R., ch. 1, to 
verse 5, sec. 3 ; Midr. Tanh., Yitro, sec. 17, ed. B. ; Mishpatim, sec. 4 ; 
Ahare Mot, sec. 18 ; Naso, sec. 34 ; Shof etim, sec. 10 ; Midr. Tehillim, 
ch. 31, sec. 2, ed. B.; ch. 50, sec. 3; ch. 60, sec. 3; ch. 71, sec. 1; 
ch. 118, sec. 22; ch. 147, sec, 3; Midr. Aggadah to the Pentateuch, 
Noah, p. 20 ; end of Ahare Mot, p. 44 ; Pesikta R., 36, p. 162a ; 37, 
p. 164a; Pesikta d'R. Kahana, p. 110b; p. 149b; Midr. Zuta to Cant., 
ch. 1, p. 5a; Midr. Wayosha\ ch. 21, p. 31; Midr. Hallel,' pp. 45-46; 
cf. Midr. Gen. R., ch. 70, sec. 10; Midr. Levit. R., ch. 18, sec. 5; 




NOTES 



143 



Midr. Lament. R., ch, 1, sec. 23, and end of sec. 33; Pesikta d'R. 
Kahana, p. 166b. 

379. Midr, Exod. R., ch. 18, sec. 11; cf. Midr. Lekah Tob, Tezawweh, 
p. 94a; Midr. Aggadah to the Pentateuch, Tezawweh, p. 175. 

380. Menahot 53b; cf. Midr. Gen. R., ch. 41 sec. 9; ch. 69, sec. 5. 

381. Amos 9, 15 ; Mekil. d'R. Ishmael, Beshallah, p. 43b ; Midr. Deutr. 
R., ch. 3, end of sec. 11; Midr, Tanh., Noah,* sec. 17, ed. B. 

■ 382. Pirke d'R. Eliezer, end of ch. 42. 

383. Sifre, Ha'azinu, sec. 314, p. 135a; Talmud, Pesahim 88a; Midr. 
Exod. R„ ch. 51, end of sec. 8; Midr. Levit. R., ch. 9, sec. 6; Midr. 
Numb. R, ch. 13, sec. 2; ch. 16, sec. 25; ch. 23, sec. 14; Midr. Cant. 
R., ch. 4, to verse 16, sec. 1; Midr. Eccles. R., ch. 1, to verse 7, 
sec. 8; Midr. Esther R., ch. 2, sec. 14; Midr. Tanh., Mikkez, sec. 17, ed. 
B. ; Wa'era, sec. 18 ; Yitro, sec. 14 ; Addition to Shelah, sec. 6 ; Masse e, 
sec. 10; Midr. Tehillim, ch. 74, sec. 3, ed. B.; Pesikta R., pp. 146b-147a; 
Pesikta d'R. Kahana, p. 149a; Midr. Zuta to Cant., end of ch. 4, 
p. 15b; ch. 7, p. 18a; Aggadat Shir ha-Shirim, pp. 37 and 108; Midr. 
Hallel, pp. 13-14; Midr. Wayosha, ch. 22, p. 32; Pesikta Zutarti, 
Balak, p. 57b; Bet 'Eked ha-Aggadot by Horowitz, Midr. 'Aseret 
Melakim, pp. 54-55; cf. Tosefta, Sanh, ch, 13, sec. 10-12; Mekil. d'R. 
Ishmael, Beshallah, p. 32a; Yitro, p. 65b; Midr. Tannaim to Deutr,, 
p. 213; Talmud, Sanh., 110b; Yerush. Ta'anit, ch. 2, p. 65d; Midr. 
Tanh., Wayeze, sec. 20, ed. B. ; Midr. Aggadah to the Pentateuch, 
Wayehi, p. Ill; Pekude, p. 190; Midr. Hallel, p. 27; Pirke d'R. 
Eliezer, end of ch. 31, and end of ch. 33; Abravanel, Mashmi'a 
Yeshu'ah, p. 6b. 

384. Jer. 16, 14-15; Tosefta, Berakot, ch. 1, sec. 10; Mekil, d'R. 
Ishmael, Bo, p. 19a ; Beshallah, p. 42a ; Talmud, Berakot 12b ; Yerush. 
Berakot, end of ch. 1, p. 4a; Midr. Eccles. R., ch, 1, to verse 11, sec. 1 ; 
Midr. Lekah Tob, end of Wayehi, p. 122b. 

385. Mekil. d'R. Shimeon, Beshallah, p. 40; Sifre, Ha'azinu, sec. 333, 
p. 140a; Midr. Tannaim to Deutr., pp. 203-204; Midr. Deutr. R. f 
ch. 10, sec. 4; Midr. Tanh., Debarim, sec. 1, ed. B.; Midr. Tehillim, 
ch. 13, sec. 4, ed. B.; Pesikta R., Addition 1, p. 193b; Pesikta d'R. 
Kahana, p. 189a; Bet ha-Midrash by Yellinek, vol, 3, p. 74. 

386. Midr, Tehillim, ch. 98, sec. 1, ed. B.; cf. Talmud, Berakot 31a. 

387. Yerush. Hallah, ch. 4, p. 60a ; Midr. Exod. R., ch. 23, sec. 5 ; 
Midr, Tanh., Beshallah, sec. 11, ed. B.; cf. Midr. Tehillim, ch. 1, 
sec. 20, ed. B.; ch. 14, sec. 7; ch. 18, sec. 35; Pesikta R., 31, p. 145a; 
41, p. 174b; Midr. Zuta to Cant., ch. 1, p. 4a. 




144 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



388. Is. 35, 10; Mekil. d'R. Ishmael, Bo, p. 15a; Beshallah, p. 25a; 
Seder Eliyahu Zuta, ch. 4, p. 179; Midr. Temurah, ch. 3, sec. 12, 
ed. Lemberg I860; cf. Mekil. d'R. Shimeon, Beshallah, p. 67; Midr. 
Tehillim, ch. 48, sec. 4, ed. B. ; Aggadat Shir ha-Shirim, p. 90. 

389. Cf. Mekil. d'R. Ishmael, Bo, p. 14a; p. 16b; Talmud, Pesahim 
54b; R. H. lOb-lla-b; Megillah 17b; Sanh. 97b; Yerush. Berakot, 
ch. 2, pp. 4d-5a; Yerush. Taanit, ch. 1, p. 63d; Abot d'R. Nathan, 
version 1, ch. 21, p. 37b; Midr. Exod. R., ch. 18, sec. 12; ch. 25, 
sec. 12; Midr. Cant. R., ch. 2, to verse 7, sec. 1 ; ch. 8, to verse 14, end 
of sec. 1; Midr. Tanh., Behukkotai, sec. 5, ed. B. ; Midr. Tehillim, 
ch. 9, sec. 2 ; ch. 59, sec 5 ; ch. 78, sec. 18 ; Midr. Lekah Tob, Wayehi, 
p. 118b; Midr. Zuta to Cant., ch. 5, p. 16b; cf. also, The Prayer to God 
for Israel, Sirach, ch. 36, p. 440. 

390. Talmud, R. H. 31b; Yoma 86b; Sanh. 98a; Midr. Gen. R., 
ch. 75 t sec. 1; ch. 93, sec. 12; Midr. Numb. R., ch. 7, end of sec. 10; 
Midr. Deutr. R., ch. 2, sec. 23 ; Midr. Lament. R., ch. 2, sec. 6 ; Midr. 
Tanh., Wayiggash, sec. 5, ed. W.; Midr. Tehillim, ch. 45, sec. 3, ed. 
B. ; ch. 106, sec. 9 ; Midr. Lekah Tob, Mikkez, p. 106b ; Pesikta R., 
40, p. 172a; Midr. ha-Gadol, Bo, p. 81; Pirke d'R. ha-Kadosh, p. 25a; 
cf. Sanh. 97a-b ; rjullin 63a ; Yerush. Pesahim, ch. 10, p. 37c ; Yerush. 
Ta'anit, ch. 1, p. 64a; Midr. Gen. R., ch. 42, sec. 4; ch. S6 t sec. 9; 
Midr. Exod. R., ch. 50, sec. 3 ; Midr. Levit. R., ch. 29, sec. 10 ; Midr. 
Lament. R., ch. 3, end of sec. 1 ; end of sec. 6; begin, of sec. 8; sec. 9; 
Midr. Tanh., Behar, sec. 4, ed. B. ; Midr. Tehillim, ch. 107, sec. 2, ed. 
B.; Midr. Zuta to Cant., ch. 2, p. 12b. 

391. Cf. Mekil. d'R. Ishmael, Bo, p. 7b; Mekil. d'R, Shimeon, 
Beshallah, p. 38; Yerush. Berakot, ch. 1, p. 2c; Yerush. Yoma, ch. 3, 
p. 40b; Midr. Exod. R., ch. 19, sec. 6; Midr. Levit. R., ch. 17, sec. 7; 
Midr. Cant. R., ch. 6, to verse 10, sec. 1 ; Midr. Tanh., Debarim, sec. 
2, ed. B.; Midr. Tehillim, ch. 18, sec. 36 y ed. B.; Pesikta d'R. Kahana, 
p. 56b; Midr. Zuta to Cant, ch. 2, p. 12a; cf. also Midr. Cant. R., ch. 2, 
to verse 13, sec. 4; Midr. Eccles, R., ch. 12, to verse 9, sec. 1. 

392. Ezek. 37, 15-28. 

393. Midr. Gen. R., ch. 98, sec. 2. 

394. Cf. Midr. Tanh., Bemidbar, sec. 16, ed. B. 

395. Is. 56, 1 ; Talmud, B. B. 10a; Midr. Exod. R., ch. 30, sec. 24. 

396. Talmud, Shab, 139a; Sanh. 98a; Midr. Exod. R., ch, 30, 
sec. 23; Midr. Deutr. R., ch. 5, sec. 7; cf. Midr. Tehillim, begin, of 
ch. 62, p. 104a, ed. W. 

397. Is. 1, 27; Pesikta d'R. Kahana, p. 123b; Aggadat Shir ha- 
Shirim, pp. 23-24; Midr. Zuta to Cant, ch, 1, p. 9b. 



KOTES 



145 



398. Midr. Cant. R-, ch. 2, to verse 2, sec. 6. 

399. Cf. Midr. Zuta to Cant., ch. 1, p. 10b. 

400. Sanh. 99b. 

401. Midr. Levit. R., ch, 7, sec. 3; cf. Midr. Lament. R., ch. 3, 
sec. 7. 

402. Midr. Exod. R., ch. 25, sec. 12. 

403. Pesikta R., 31, p. 144b; cf. Midr. Tehillim, begin, of ch. 62, 
p. 104a, ed. W. 

404. Cf. Hosea 2, 21-22. 

405. Cf. Higger, Treatise Semahot, p. 66. 

406. Mekil. d'R. Ishmael, Beshallah, pp. 33b-34a; Mekil. d'R. 
Shimeon, Beshallah, p. 56; Midr. Tehillim, ch. 31, sec. 8, ed, B. 

407. Hosea 2, 21-22; Mekil. d'R. Ishmael, ibid.; Mekil. d'R. Shimeon, 
ibid, 

408. Abot, ch. 6, Mishnah 6; Talmud, Megillah 15a; ^ullin 104b; 
cf. end of Treatise Kallah. 

409. Treatise Kallah, at the end; cf. Berakot 27b; Midr, Tanh., 
Bemidbar, sec. 27, ed. B. 

410. Sefer Hasidim by R. Judah He-Hasid, sec. 67, Zitamir 1857. 

411. Is. 2, 2; Midr. Tehillim, ch. 50, sec. 1, ed. B. 

412. Is. 2, 3. 

413. Pesikta R, 41, p. 172b. 

414. Cf. Ps. 121, 3. 

415. Cf. Deutr. 11, 12. 

416. Sifre, 'Ekeb, sec. 40, p. 78b. 

417. Mumford, The Story of Utopias, p. 306. 

418. Pesikta R., 1, p. 2a. 

419. Is. 60, 8. 

420. Midr. Lekah Tob, Mishpatim, p. 86b; cf. Midr. Tannaim to 
Deutr., p. 114; Midr. Gen, R., ch, 44, sec, 23; Midr. ha-Gadol, Lek Leka, 
col. 241. 

421. Midr. Exod. R., ch. 24, sec. 4; cf. Midr. Zuta to Cant., ch. 6, 
p. 16b. 

422. Zech. 2, 9 ; Midr. Exod. R., ch. 40, end of sec. 4. 

423. Midr. Lament. R., ch. 1, sec. 26 and 52; cf. Menahot 87a. 

424. Midr. Exodus R., ch. 30, sec. 8 ; Midr. Tanh., Wayishlah, sec. 9, 
ed. W. ; cf. Pesikta R., 34, p. 159a. 

425. Midr. Exod. R,, ch. 25, end of sec. 8; cf. ibid., ch. 15, sec. 1. 

426. Pirke d'R. Eliezer, ch. 34; cf. Midr. Cant. R., ch 8. to verse 
6, sec. 4. 



146 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



427. Cf. Mekil. d'R. Ishmael, Beshallah, p. 25a ; Mekil. d'R. Shimeon, 
Yitro, p. 106; Sifre, Wezot ha-Berakah, sec. 343, p. 143a; Midr. Tanh., 
Beshallah, sec, 5, ed. W. ; Seder Eliyahu R., ch. 18, p. 96. 

428. Talmud, Megillah 29a; Pesikta R., 41, p, 173b; Midr. Tanh., 
Lek Leka, sec. 15, ed. W.; sec. 19, ed. B.; Ki Tabo, sec. 4, ed. W. 

429. Talmud. Ketubot 111b; 112b; B. B. 122a; Midr. Lament. R., 
Introd., end of sec. 34; Midr. Aggadah to the Pentateuch, Kedoshim, 
pp. 47-48, 

430. Is. 40, 4; Midr, Deutr. R., ch. 4, sec. 11. 

431. Is. 30, 25. 

432. Is. 41, 18; Midr. Numb. R., ch. 14, sec. 2. 

433. Cf. Sifre. Debarim, sec. 1, p. 65a; Yerush., Shebi'it, ch. 6, 
p. 36b; Yerush. Kiddushin, end of ch. 1, p. 61d; Midr. Gen. R., ch. 69, 
sec. 5; Midr. Exod. R., ch. 15, sec. 23. 

434. Jer. 33, 10-11; Talmud, Ketubot 8a; cf. Midr. Deutr. R., ch. 7, 
sec. 1. 

435. Is. 51, 3; Midr. Tanh., Wayehi, sec. 17, ed. W. ; cf. Midr. Exod. 
R., ch. 19, sec. 1. 

436. Sifra, Kedoshim, p. 93b; Midr. Levit. R., ch. 2, sec. 2; We- 
Hizhir, Tezawweh, p. lOOa-b. 

437. Cf. Midr. Gen. R„ ch. 85, sec. 9. 

438. Jer. 24, 6. 

439. Amos 9, 15; Mekil. d'R. Ishmael, Beshallah, p. 43b; Midr. 
Deutr. R., ch. 3, end of sec. 11. 

440. Pirke d'R. Eliezer, end of ch. 42. 

441. Midr. Tanh., Wayera, sec. 23, ed. W. 

442. Midr. Zuta to Cant,, ch. 1, p. 10a. 

443. Pesikta d'R. Kahana, p. 145a. 

444. Is. 52, 8; Midr. Tanh., Bemidbar, sec. 20, ed. B.; Midr. Tehillim, 
ch. 13, sec, 2, ed. B. ; ch. 13, p. 40b, ed. W. ; cf. ibid., end of ch. 84, 
p. 120b, ed. W. 

445. Talmud, B. B. 122a. 

446. Cf. Pesikta d'R. Kahana, p. 148a. 

447. Cf. also Talmud, Ketubot 8b; Yerush. Taanit, ch. 2, p. 65c. 

448. Megillat Taanit, ch. 12, p. 34a; Talmud, B. K. 60b; Menahot 
87a; Yerush. Berakot, ch. 4, pp. 7d and 8a; Midr. Gen. R., ch. 49, 
sec. 2; ch. 59, sec. 5; ch. 64, sec. 4; ch. 100, sec. 9; Midr. Exod. R., 
ch. 20, sec. 18; Midr. Levit. R., ch. 10, end of sec. 9; Midr. Cant. 
R., ch. 4, to verse 4, sec. 6, p. 25b; Midr. Tanh., Noah, sec. 11, ed. 
W.; Wayera, sec. 16; Midr. Tehillim, ch. 9, sec. 8, ed. B. ; ch. 22, 
sec. 9; ch. 36, sec. 6; ch. 72, sec. 1; ch. 87, sec. 3; Pesikta R., 26, 



NOTES 



147 



p. 132a; Pesikta d'R. Kahana, p. 116a; pp. 139b-140a; 146a-b ; 147a; 
148a; Aggadat Shir ha-Shirim, pp. 8-9; Midr. Zuta to Cant,, ch. 1, 
p. 3a; p. 3b; ch. 2, p. 12a; Ozar Midrashim by Wertheimer, p. 46; 
Midr. Konen, p. 5a; Otiyyot d'R. Akiba, version 2, p. 14b. 

449. Midr. Cant. R., ch. 1, to verse 4, p. 8a; Pesikta d'R. Kahana, 
p. 147a-b. 

450. Taanit 5a; Midr. Tehillim, ch. 122, p. 177b, ed. W.; cf. Midr. 
Aggadah to the Pentateuch, end of Zaw, p. 18. 

■451. Zeph. 3, 5; Mekil. d'R. Ishmael, Beshallah, p. 32a. 

452. Talmud, Megillah 17b. 

453. Midr. Tehillim, ch. 146, sec. 9. ed. B. 

454. Talmud, B. B. 75b. 

455. Cf. Midr. Exod. R., ch. 20, sec. 18; Aggadat Shir ha-Shirim, 
pp. 8-9 ; Pesikta R., 30, p. 142a-b. 

456. Jer. 31, 22 ; Midr. Tanh., Lek Leka, sec. 4, ed. W. ; sec. 5, ed. B. ; 
Addition to Re'eh, sec. 1, ed. B. 

457. Is. 60, 17; Midr. Tehillim, ch. 79, sec. 4, ed. B. 

458. Pesikta R., 8, p. 29b. 

459. Midr. Numb. R., ch. 11, end of sec. 7, 

460. Mai. 3, 24; Midr. Deutr. R., ch. 4, sec. 11. 

461. Midr. Tehillim, ch. 122, p. 177b, ed. W. ; cf. Yerush. Hagigah, 
ch. 3, p. 79d. 

462. Pesikta R., 8, p. 29a-b. 

463. Is. 25, 8; Midr. Tanh., Wayehi, sec. 7, ed. B. 

464. Zech. 8, 4-5 ; Sifre, 'Ekeb, sec. 43, p. 81a-b ; Talmud, Makkot, 
24b; Midr. Lament; R., ch. 5, sec. 18; Midr. Tehillim, ch. 145, sec. 1, 
ed. B. 

465. Midr. Exod. R., ch. 52, end of sec. 5; Midr. Tanh., Pekude, 
sec. 8, ed. B.; cf. Pesahim 116b; Midr. Tehillim, ch. 147, sec. 3, ed. B. 

466. Tosefta, Sukkah, ch. 3, sec. 3-10; Talmud, Sanh. 100a; Yerush. 
Shekalim, ch. 6, p. 50a, ed. Krotoshin ; Midr. Tehillim, end of ch. 23, 
p. 72b, ed. W. ; Midr. ha-Gadol, Wayera, col. 287 ; cf. Midr. Gen. R., 
ch. 48, sec. 10 ; Midr. Numb. R., ch. 13, sec. 5 ; Midr. Tanh., Terumah, 
sec. 4, ed. B. 

467. Talmud, B. B. 75a; Sanh. 100a; Pesikta d'R. Kahana, pp. 
136b-137a; Bet ha-Midrash by Yellinek, vol. 6, p. 118. 

468. Pesikta R., 32, p. 149a; Pesikta d'R. Kahana, p. 137a-b; 
Bet ha-Midrash by Yellinek, vol, 3, p. 74. 

469. Sifre, Debarim, sec. 1, p, 65a; Talmud, Pesahim 50a; B. B. 
75b; Midr. Cant. R., ch. 7, to verse 5, sec, 3; Midr. Tanh., Zaw, sec. 
16, ed. B.; Midr. Tehillim, ch. 48, sec. 4, ed. B.; Pesikta R., 41, 



148 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



pp. 172b-173a; Pesikta d'R. Kahana, p. 108a-b; Bet ha-Midrash by 
Yellinek, vol. 3, pp. 67 and 74; vol. 6, p. 118; cf. Aptowitzer, The 
Heavenly Temple According to the Aggadah, reprint of an article 
in the second vol. of the Tarbiz, pp. 31-33. 

470. Is. 41, 19; Talmud, R,*H. 23a. 

471. Tosefta Sotah, ch. 11, sec. 14; Midr. Exod. R., ch. 23, 
sec. 10; Midr. Cant. R., ch. 1, to verse 5, sec. 3; Midr. Tanh., Addition 
to Debarim, sec. 3, ed. B.; Midr. Tehillim, ch. 36, p. 87a, ed. W.; cf. 
B. B. 75a; Midr. Tanh., Wayera, sec. 3, ed. W. 

472. The Sibylline Books, Book V, p. 405. 

473. Jer. 3, 17; Abot d'R. Nathan, version 1, ch. 35, p. 53b; 
Pesikta d'R. Kahana, p. 143a-b. 

474. Is. 60, 3; Midr. Exod. R., ch. 15, sec. 21 ; Pesikta d'R. Kahana, 
pp. I44b-145a. 

475. Pesikta d'R. Kahana, pp. 148b-149a; cf. Tosefta, Ta'anit, ch. 4, 
sec. 14; Tosefta, Sotah, ch. 15, sec. 15; Tosefta B. B., ch. 2, sec. 17; 
Talmud, Ta'anit 30b; B. B. 60b; Pesikta R., 28, p. 136a-b; Midr. 
Zuta to Lament., pp. 33b and 42b. 

476. Cf. Selihot for the Third Day of the Ten Days of Penitence, 
pp. 454-456. 

477. Mekil. d'R. Shimeon, Beshallah, p. 70. 

478. Cf. Yerush. Berakot, ch. 4, p. 8a; Midr. Eccles. R., ch. 1, to 
verse 7, sec. 8; Midr. Tanh., Noah, sec. 17, ed. B. ; Wa'era, sec. 18; 
Yitro, sec. 14; Addition to Shelah, sec. 6; Pesikta d'R. Kahana, p. 
143a-b; Midr. Zuta to Lament, pp. 33b and 42b. 

479. Midr. Tanh., Wayera, sec. 4, ed. B. 

480. Pesikta R., 35, p. 160b. 

481. Midr. Tehillim, ch. 147, sec. 3, ed. B. ; Midr. Wayosha, ch. 21 
p. 31 ; cf. Mekil. d'R. Shimeon, Beshallah, p. 63 ; Midr. Tanh., Naso 
sec. 29, ed. B. 

482. Cf. Midr. Levit. R., ch. 2, sec. 2; Midr. Samuel, ch. 19, p. 30a 
Aggadat Bereshit, ch. 48, pp. 96-97. 

483. The Book of Tobit, ch. 13, pp. 236-238 ; cf. ibid,,, pp. 239-240 
The Book of Baruch, ch. 5, pp. 594-595. 

484. Cf. Megillat Taanit, last ch., p. 40b; Mishnah, Pesahim 116b 
Mishnah, Ta'anit 26b; Tosefta, Ta'anit, ch. 4, sec. 9; Sifre, Wezot ha» 
Berakah, sec. 352, p. 145b; Talmud, Berakot 58b; Ketubot 8b; B. M. 
28b; Yerush. Berakot, ch. 4, pp. 7d, 8a; Yerush. Yoma, ch. 1, p. 38c; 
Yerush, Ta'anit, ch. 2, p. 65c; Treatise Soferim, ch. 21, sec. 2; 
Massektot Ze'erot, pp. 81, 87; Midr. Gen. R., ch. 63, sec. 8; ch. 98, 
sec. 2; Midr. Levit. R,, ch. 2, sec. 2; ch. 9, sec. 6; ch. 11, sec. 2; ch. 






NOTES 



149 



30, sec. 16; Midr. Numb. R., ch. 16, end of sec. 11; Midr. Cant R., 
ch. 4 to verse 16, sec. 1 ; Midr. Tehillim, ch. 22, sec. 9, ed. B. ; ch. 23, 
sec. 7; ch. 68, sec. 9; Midr. Lekah Tob, Wayehi, p. 118b; Aggadat 
Bereshit, ch. 72, p. 141; ch. 82, p. 157; Pesikta R., 27, p. 134a; 31, 
p. 144b; Pesikta d'R Kahana, pp. 136b-137a, 144b; Midr. Samuel, 
ch. 19, p. 30a; Midr. Mishle, ch. 23, to verse 5, p. 47b; Aggadat Shir 
ha-Shirim, pp. 23-24; Midr. Zuta to Cant., ch. 1, p. 9b; Otiyyot d'R. 
Akiba, version 2, p. 14b; Yellinek, Bet ha-Midrash, vol. 3, p. 74. 

485. Yerush. Ma'aser Sheni, ch, 5, p. 56a. 

486. Cf. Mishnah, Shekalim, ch. 6, M. 4, p. 49b, ed. Krotoshin; Mid- 
dot, ch. 2, M. 5-6, ed. Wilna ; Tosefta, Yom ha-Kippurim, ch. 2, 
sec. 7; Mekil. d'R. Ishmael, Beshallah, p. 51b; Talmud, Yoma 38b; 
Yerush. Shekalim, ch. 6, p. 49c, ed. Krotoshin; Yerush. Horayot, ch. 
3, p. 47c; Midr. Numb. R. ch. 15, sec. 10; Midr. Tanh., Behaaloteka, 
sec. 11, ed. B. ; Midr. Tehillim, ch. 36, sec. 6, ed. B. ; ch. 87 f sec. 3; 
Midr. Lekah Tob, Tezawweh, p. 94a; Midr. Aggadah to the Penta- 
teuch, end of Wayakhel, p. 189 ; Pesikta R., 8, p. 29a ; Pesikta d'R. 
Kahana, p. 144b. 

487. Cf. Tamid, ch. 7, end of Mishnah 3 ; Sifre Wezot ha-Berakah, 
sec. 354, p. 147a; Talmud, Bekorot 53b; Midr. Levit R., ch. 2, sec. 2; 
ch. 37, end of sec. 4; Midr. Numb. R., ch. 17, sec. 4; Midr. Tanh., 
Wayera, sec. 3, ed. W. ; Tezawweh, sec. 15, ed. W. ; Addition to 
Shelah, sec. 21, ed. B.; Re'eh, sec. 17, ed. B.; Midr. Tehillim, ch. 43, 
sec. 1, ed. B.; Pesikta d'R. Kahana, p. 100a; Midr. ha-Gadol, Yitro, 
p. 240; Midr. Samuel, ch. 19, p. 30a; Midr. Konen, p. 5; Yellinek, 
Bet ha-Midrash, vol. 3, p. 69; Aptowitzer, The Heavenly Temple 
According to the Aggadah, reprint of an article in the second volume 
of the Tarbiz, p. 18. 

488. Additional Service for New Year, in Singer's Daily Prayer 
Book, p. 254. 

489. Midr. Levit. R., ch. 9, sec. 7; ch. 27, sec. 12; Midr. Tanh., 
Zaw, sec. 7, ed. W. ; Emor, sec. 19, ed. B. ; Midr. Aggadah to the Penta- 
teuch, Zaw, p. 15; Midr. Tehillim, ch. 56, sec. 4, ed. B.; ch. 100, 
sec. 4, ed. B. ; ch. 100, p. 139a, ed. W. ; Pesikta Zutarti, Zaw, p. 11a: 
cf. Talmud, Megillah 18a; Midr. Numb. R., ch. 21, sec, 21; Midr. 
Tanh., Pinehas, sec. 12, ed. B. ; Midr. Tehillim, ch. 95, sec. 1, ed. B. 

490. Tosefta, 'Erubin, ch. 11, sec. 10. 

491. The Sibylline Books, Book III, p. 392. 

492. Midr. Deutr. R., ch. 5, sec. 3; cf. Talmud, Sanh. 43b; Midr. 
Levit. R., ch. 9, sec. 2; Midr. Tanh., Shemini, sec, 4, ed. W. ; Midr. 
Lekah Tob, Tezawweh, p. 94a. 



■ 



150 



THE JEWISH tTTOPIA 



NOTES 



151 



493. Cf. Nispahim l'Seder Eliyahu Zuta, Pirke ha-Yeridot, ch. 3, p. 56. 

494. Megillat Ta'anit, ch. 12, p. 34a ; Midr. Cant. R, ch. 4, to 
verse 4, sec. 6, p. 25b; Midr. Tanh, Wayeze, sec. 9, ed. B. ; Ki Tissa, 
sec. 13, ed. W.; Wayakhel, sec. 6, ed. B. ; Midr. Tehillim, ch. 90, sec. 
18, ed. B. ; Midr. Aggadah to the Pentateuch, Terumah, p. 167 ; Pesikta 
R, 27, p. 134a; 28, p. 135a; Aggadat Shir ha-Shirim, p. 107; Seder 
Eliyahu R., ch. 18, p. 95; Midr. ha-Gadol, Bereshit, col. 130; Bo. p. 76; 
Midr. Zuta to Cant., ch. 2, p. 12a ; Bet ha-Midrash by Yellinek, vol. 3, 
pp. 74-75; p. 188; cf. Talmud, Zebahim 118b; Midr. Gen. R., ch. 56, 
.sec. 2; Midr. Samuel, ch. 19, p. 29b; Aptowitzer, The Heavenly Temple 
According to the Aggadah, reprint of an article in the second volume 
of theTarbiz, pp. 31-33. 

495. Mekil. d'R. Shimeon, Beshallah, p. 70; Midr. ha-Gadol, Beshal- 
lah, p. 166. 

495a. Is. 2, 2; Midr. Tehillim, ch. 50, sec, 1, ed. B.; cf. Treatise 
Soferim, ch. 14, sec. 12. 

496. Is. 2, 3 ; Tosef ta, Menahot, ch. 13, sec. 23 ; Talmud, Pesahim 
88a; Midr. ha-Gadol, Wayishlah, col. 547-548; cf. Aggadat Shir 
ha-Shirim, pp. 34-35; Midr, Zuta to Cant., ch. 3, p. 14a. 

497. The Book of Enoch, ch. 90, p. 260. 

498. Midr. Gen. R., ch. 69, sec. 7; Midr. Exod. R., ch. 15, sec. 1; 
Midr. Cant. R., ch. 2, to verse 13, sec. 3; Midr. Tanh., Wayera, sec. 3, 
ed. W.; Pesikta R., 40, p. 169b; Midr. ha-Gadol, Beshallah, p. 166; 
cf. Bet ha-Midrash by Yellinek, vol. 3, p. 67. 

498a. Midr. Tehillim, ch. 29, sec. 2, ed. B. ; cf. Sif re, Beha aloteka, 
sec. 77, p. 20a; Midr. Numb. R., ch. 13, sec. 2. 

499. Morning Service, in Singer's Daily Prayer Book, p. 55. 

500. Pirke d'R. Eliezer, ch. 51. 

501. Cf. Yerush. Yoma, ch. 3, p. 41a; Yerush. Shekalim, ch. 5, p. 49a, 
ed. Krotoshin ; Midr. Cant. R., ch. 3, to verse 6, sec. 4. 

502. Midr. Tanh., Mishpatim, sec. 3, ed. W. 

503. Is. 28, 16-17; Midr. Deutr. R., ch. 3, sec. 13; cf. Levit. R., ch. 17, 
sec. 7. 

504. Kallah R., at end of ch. 8. 

505. Cf. Midr. Exod. R, ch. 25, sec. 8; Midr. Numb. R., ch. 9, sec. 
49; Midr. Tehillim, ch. 92, sec, 11, ed. B.; ch. 138, sec. 2; Saadiah's 
commentary to Cant,, at the end, pp. 131-132, in Wertheimer's Gaon 
ha-Geonim, Jerusalem 1925; Tur Orah Hayyim, at end of sec. 122. 

506. Midr, Gen. R., ch, 2, sec. 5; ch. 56, sec. 10; ch. 65 f sec. 23; 
Midr. Exod. R., ch. 36, end of sec. 1 ; Bet ha-Midrash by Yellinek, 
vol. 3, p. 69; cf. Midr. Levit R., ch. 31, sec. 11. 



507. Sanh. 100a ; Yerush. Shekalim, ch. 6, p. 50a, ed. Krotoshin ; cf. 
Pesikta R., 33, p. 156b; Yellinek, Bet ha-Midrash, vol. 3, p. 68; 
vol. 6, p. 118. 

508. Abot d'R. Nathan, version 2, end of ch. 5, pp. 9b-10a; cf. 
Treatise Soferim, ch. 19, sec. 9; Midr. Levit. R., ch. 1, sec. 2; Midr. 
Numb. R., ch. 8, sec. 1; Midr, Tanh., Lek Leka, sec, 15, ed. W.; sec. 
19, ed. B. ; Re' eh, sec. 17, ed. B. ; Pesikta d'R. Kahana, p. 100a. 

509. The Book of Jubilees, ch. 4, p. 19. 

510. The Sibylline Books, Book V, p. 405. 

511. Cf. Sif re Zuta, p. 57; Talmud, Yoma 5b; Yerush. Horayot, 
ch. 3, p. 47c; Midr. Exod. R., ch. 19, sec. 4; Midr. Levit. R., ch. 2, 
sec. 2; Midr, Numb. R, ch. 14, sec. 13; Midr. Lekah Tob, Tezawweh, 
p. '96a; Midr. Tehillim, ch. 87, sec. 6, ed. B.; Midr. Samuel* ch. 19, 
p. 30a. 

512. Cf. Tosef ta, Taanit, ch. 4, sec. 9; Tosef ta, 'Arakin, ch. 2, sec. 
7; Talmud, Yoma 5b; 'Arakin 13b; Yerush. Yebamot, ch. 8, p. 9d; 
Yerush. Kiddushin, ch. 4, p. 65d ; Midr. Levit. R., ch. 2, sec. 2 ; Midr. 
Numb. R., ch. 15, sec. 11; Midr. Tanh., Beha aloteka, sec. 12, ed. B.; 
Midr. Tehillim, ch. 36, sec. 6, ed. B. ; ch. 87, sec. 3 and 6 ; Pesikta d'R. 
Kahana, p. 144b; Midr. ha-Gadol, Beshallah, p. 177; Midr. Samuel, 
ch. 19, p. 30a; We-Hizhir, Tezawweh, p. lOOa-b. 

513. Exod. 19, 6; Mekil. d'R. Shimeon, Yitro, p. 95; Midr. ha-Gadol, 
Yitro, pp. 204-205. 

514. Cf. also Yerush. Megillah, ch. 2, p. 73b. 

515. Midr. Gen. R., ch. 80, sec. 1. 

516. Mai. 2, 7. 

517. Job 10, 22; Midr. Exod. R., ch. 38, sec. 3. 

518. Midr. Tanh., Lek Leka, sec. 4, ed. W. ; sec. 5, ed. B. ; Naso, sec. 
18, ed. W.; Pesikta R., 5, p. 22b; cf. Midr. Deutr, R., ch. 1, sec. 9. 

519. Ezek. 36, 25;. Midr. Levit. R., ch. 15, sec. 9; Midr. Tanh, 
Hukkat, sec. 28, ed. B.; Pesikta d'R. Kahana, p. 41b; cf. Abot d'R. 
Nathan, version 1, ch. 34, p. 50b. 

519a. Abraham Lincoln's Peoria Speech, October 16, 1854. 

520. Midr. Lament. R, ch. 1, sec. 41 ; Midr. Tanh, Emor, sec. 3, 
ed. W. ; Midr. Samuel, end of ch. 24, p. 39b, 

521. Midr. ha-Gadol, Bereshit, col 130; cf. Beshallah, p. 177. 

522. Cf. Megillah 18a; Midr. Gen. R, ch. 56, sec. 2 ; Midr. ha-Gadol, 
Wayera, col. 320-321; Shemot, pp. 42-43. 

523. Zeph. 3, 9. 

524. Midr. Tehillim, ch. 66, sec. 1, ed. B. 
11 



152 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



525. Cf. Mishnah, Berakot ch, 1, M. 5; Mishnah, Tamid, end 
of ch. 7, Mishnah 4; Mekil. d'R. Shimeon, Beshallah, p, 57; Sifre, Re' eh, 
sec. 130, p. 101a; Ha'azinu, sec. 333, p. 140b; Talmud, Sanh. 43b 
91b; Yerush. Megillah, ch. 2, p. 73a; Abot d'R. Nathan, version 1 
ch. 1, p. 4a ; Treatise Sof erim, ch. 18, sec. 1 ; Midr. Gen. R., ch. 6, 
sec. 6; Midr. Levit. R., ch. 9, sec. 7; ch. 27, sec. 12; Midr. Deutr 
R., ch. 7, sec. 1; Midr. Eccles. R., ch. 1, to verse 7, sec. 7; to verse 9, 
sec. 1 ; Midr. Cant. R., ch. 4, to verse 4, sec. 3, p. 25a, ed, Wilna 
Midr. Tanh., Bereshit, sec. 25 and 32, ed. B.; Zaw, sec. 7, ed. W, 
Emor, sec. 19, ed. B.; Midr. Aggadah to the Pentateuch, Zaw, p, 15 
Midr. Tehillim, ch. 9, sec. 5, ed. B.; ch. 56, sec. 4, ed. B.; ch. 100 : 
sec. 4, ed. B.; ch. 100, p. 139a, ed. W.; ch. 106, sec. 2, ed. B.; ch. 118, 
sec. 8 and 14, ed. B. ; Pesikta d'R. Kahana, pp. 181b-182a, 201a 
Midr. Hallel, pp. 1, 5, 14, 42; Pesikta Zutarti, Zaw, p. 11a. 

526. Midr. Hallel, p. 4. 

527. Is. 65, 24; Midr. Exod. R., ch. 21, sec. 3; Midr. Tanh., Mish- 
patim, sec. 16, ed. W.; Emor, sec. 23, ed. B. 

528. Is. 30, 19; Midr. Tanh., Mishpatim, sec. 9, ed. B. 

529. Ps. 91, 15; Midr. Tehillim, ch. 91, sec. 8, ed. B. 

530. Sukkah 52a; Yerush. Sukkah, ch. 5, p. 55b; Midr. Gen. R., 
ch. 48, sec. 11; Midr. Exod. R., ch. 46, sec. 4; Midr. Deutr. R. ch. 2, 
sec. 30; Midr. Tanh., Yitro, sec. 17, ed. W. ; Kedoshim sec. 14, ed. 
B. ; Midr. Aggadah to the Pentateuch, Terumah, p. 168 ; end of 
Kedoshim, p, 50; Seder Eliyahu R., ch. 2, p. 7. 

531. Ezek. 36, 26; Yerush. Yoma, begin, of ch. 4, p. 41b; Midr. 
Exod. R., ch. 41, end of sec. 7; Midr. Numb, R., ch. 15, sec. 16; ch. 17, 
sec. 6; Midr. Deutr. R., ch. 6, sec. 14; Midr. Eccles, R., ch, 9, to 
verse 15, sec. 8; Midr. Tanh., Bereshit,* sec. 40, ed. B.; Ki Tissa, 
sec. 13; Wayikra, sec, 12; Kedoshim, sec. 15; Beha'aloteka, sec. 19; 
Shelah, sec. 31; Addition to IHukkat, sec. 1, ed. B. ; 'Ekeb, sec. 11, 
cd. W. ; Midr. Aggadah to the Pentateuch, Wayikra, p. 9; Pesikta 
d'R. Kahana, p. 165a; Aggadat Bereshit, ch. 23, p. 47; Midr. ha- 
Gadol, Mikkez, col. 637-638, 

532. Midr. Deutr. R., ch. 2, sec. 30; Midr. Tanh., Bereshit, sec. 40, 
ed. B. ; Ki Tissa, sec. 13 ; Wayikra, sec. 12 ; Kedoshim, sec. 14 and 
15 ; Midr. Aggadah to the Pentateuch, end of Kedoshim, p. 50. 

533. Midr. Gen. R., ch. 89, sec. 1. 

534. Midr. Levit. R., ch. 30, sec. 3 ; Midr. Tanh., Addition to !Hukkat 
sec. 1, ed. B. 

535. Yerush. Yoma, begin, of ch. 4, p. 41b; Midr. Gen. R., ch. 34, 
sec. 15. 



NOTES 



153 



536. Pirke d'R. Eliezer, end of ch. 29. 

537, Cf. Talmud. Sukkah 52a; Midr. Eccles. R„ ch. 2, to verse 1, 
sec. 1 ; Midr. Tanh., Wayishlah, sec. 10, ed. W. ; Aggadat Bereshit, ch. 
23, p. 47; Pesikta R., 37, p. 163a; Seder Eliyahu R., ch. 3, p. 14; Pesikta 
Zutarti, Shelah, p. 50b; Yellinek, Bet ha-Midrash, vol. 6, p. 120; 
Wertheimer, Ozar Midrashim, p. 46; cf. also, The Assumption of 
Moses, ch. 10, p. 421. 

. 538. Is. 11, 9. 

539. Jer. 31, 34; Midr. Exod. R., ch. 21, sec. 3; ch. 38, sec. 3; Midr. 
Deutr. R., ch. 6, sec. 14; Midr. Tanh., Bemidbar, sec. 20, ed. B.; 'Ekeb, 
sec. 11, ed. W.; Midr. ha-Gadol, Mikkez, col. 637-638; cf. Yerush. 
Shekalim, at end of ch. 3, p. 47c, ed. Krotoshin; Seder Eliyahu R., 
ch. 2, p. 7; We-Hizhir, Yitro, p. 36b. 

540. Midr. Gen. R., ch. 95, sec. 3; Midr. Eccles. R,, ch. 2, to verse 1, 
sec. 1 ; Midr. Tanh., Wayiggash, sec. 12, ed. B. ; Ki Tabo, sec. 4, ed. W. ; 
Pesikta d'R. Kahana, p. 107a. 

541. The Book of Jubilees, ch. 23, p. 49. 

542. Zeph, 3, 9; Midr. Tanh., Noah, sec. 19, ed. W. 

543. Pirke d'R. ha-Kadosh, p. 30a. 

544. Sifre, Wezot ha-Berakah, sec. 343, p. 143a. 

545. Yerush. Shebi'it, end of ch. 4, p. 35c; Abot d'R. Nathan, version 
2, ch. 43, p. 60b; Midr. Gen. R., ch. 2, sec. 4; Midr. Numb. R., 
ch. 13, sec. 11; Midr. Ruth R,, ch. 7, sec. 2; Menorat ha-Maor by 
R. Isaac Aboab, ch. 311; cf. Sifre, Ha'azinu, sec. 310, p. 134a; Midr. 
Tehillim, begin, of ch. 21, p. 64a-b, ed. W. ; Midr. ha-Gadol, Wayishlah, 
col. 547-548; Sefer IJasidim by R. Judah He-IJasid, sec. 939, p. 244, 
Zitamir 1857. 

546. Cf. Megillah 6a. 

547. Amos 8, 11; Midr. Gen. R„ ch. 25, sec. 3; ch. 40, sec. 3; 
ch, 64, sec. 2; Midr. Ruth R., ch. 1, begin, of sec. 4; Midr. Samuel, 
ch. 28, p. 44a; Midr. ha-Gadol, Wayeze, col. 466; Mikkez, col. 641- 
642; Midr. Hallel, p. 13. 

548. Amos 8, 12; 

549. Is. 44, 3 ; Midr, Aggadah to the Pentateuch, 'Ekeb, p. 188 ; cf. 
Tosefta, 'Eduyot, ch. 1, sec. 1 ; Talmud, Shab., 138b. 

550. Cf. Treatise Soferim, ch. 19, end of sec. 12; Landshuth, Seder 
Bikkur Holim, Part I, p. 61, ed. Berlin 1867. 

551. Is. 24, 23; Midr. Tanh., Shemot, sec. 21, ed. B. ; sec. 24, ed, W. ; 
Midr. Tehillim, ch. 119, sec. 43, ed. B.; cf. Midr. Tanh., Shemot, sec. 
29, ed. W. 




154 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 




NOTES 



155 



552. Ezek. 36, 27; Midr. Numb. R., ch. 17, sec. 6; Midr. Tanh., 
Shelah, sec. 31, ed. B. 

553. Midr., Tanh., Noah, sec. 3 and 12, ed. W.; Wayakhel, sec. 6; 
Midr. Tehillim, ch. 119, sec. 34, ed. B.; cf. Midr. Levit. R., ch. 13, 
sec. 2; Midr. Eccles. R., ch. 1, to verse 9, sec. 1 ; Midr. Tanh., Shemini, 
sec. 14, ed. B.; Midr. Aggadah to the Pentateuch, end of Shemini, 
p. 27; Mashrma Yeshu'ah by R. Isaac Abravanel, p. 38a. 

554. Cf. 'Ab. Zarah 2a-3b; Yerush. 'Ab Zarah, ch. 2, p. 40c; Midr. 
Tanh., Shofetim, sec. 9, ed. B. ; Midr. Tehillim, ch. 21, sec. 1, ed. B. ; 
Midr. ha-Gadol, Wayishlah, col. 547-548. 

555. Cf. Tosefta 'Eduyot, ch. 1, sec. 1; Mekil. d'R. Ishmael, Bo, 
p. 13a; Sifre, 'Ekeb, sec. 48, p. 84b; Talmud, Shab. 138b; Midr. Lekah 
Tob, Bo, p. 33b. 

556. Cf. Talmud, Yebamot 102a; Menahot 45a; Abot d'R. Nathan, 
version 1, ch. 34, p. 51a; version 2, ch. 37, p. 49b; Midr. Gen. R., ch. 
98, sec. 9. 

557. Cf. Midr. Numb. R., ch. 19, sec 6; Midr. Eccles. R., ch. 11, 
to verse 8, sec. 1 ; Midr. Tanh., Hukkat, sec. 24, ed. B, ; Pesikta R., 
14, p. 64a-b; Pesikta d'R. Kahana, p. 39a-b; p. 55a; Midr. Tehillim, 
ch. 146, sec. 5, ed. B.; Midr. Aggadah to the Pentateuch, Terumah, 
p. 167; Aggadat Bereshit, ch. 70, p. 137. 

558. Yerush., IJagigah, ch. 2, p. 77d; cf, Babyl. Talmud, Pesahim 
50a; Hagigah 14a. 

559. Cf. Midr. Tannaim to Deutr., p. 114; Talmud, Niddah 61b; 
Midr. Levit. R., ch. 13, sec. 3; Midr. ha-Gadol, Noah, col. 176. 

560. Cf. Midr. Tehillim, ch. 146, sec. 4 and 5, ed. B. ; Otiyyot d'R. 
Akiba, version 2, p. 16b; Yeshu'ot Meshiho by R. Isaac Abravanel, 
division 4, ch. 3, p. 48a-b; Reifmann, Bet Talmud, vol. 3, pp. 333-334; 
Buber, Bet Talmud, vol. 4, pp. 54-55 ; I. M. Guttmann, Behinat Kiyyum 
ha-Mizwot, pp. 75-78. 

561. Midr. Tehillim, ch. 73, sec. 4, ed. B. 

562. Cf. Yerush. Megillah, ch. 1, p. 70d; Aggadat Esther, ch. 9, 
p. 40a-b; The Responsa of RaDBaZ, vol. 2, sec. 666, Venice 1743, 

563. Midr. Numb. R., ch. 21, sec. 25; Midr. Tanh., Pinellas, sec. 17, 
ed. B.; Midr. Aggadah to the Pentateuch, Ki Tissa, p. 181; Midr. 
Lekah Tob, Bo, p. 31b. 

564. Cf. Aggadat Esther, ch. 6, p. 33a ; ch. 9, p. 40a-b ; Midr. Mishle, 
ch. 9, to verse 2, p. 31a; Responsa of RaSHBa, sec. 93, Vienna 1812; 
Responsa of RaDBaZ, vol. 2, sec. 828, Venice 1743. 






565. Joel 3, 1; Midr. Levit. R., ch. 1, sec. 14; Midr. Tanh., Mikkez, 
sec. 2, ed. W. ; sec. 4, ed. B.; Midr. Tehillim, ch. 14, sec. 6, ed. B. ; 
cf. Mekil. d'R. Shimeon, Beshallah, p. 52 ; Talmud, Sanhedrin 91b. 

566. Midr. Cant. R., ch. 4, to verse 11, sec. 1 ; Midr. Ruth R., Introd., 
sec. 2; Midr. Eccles. R., ch. 1, to verse 11, sec. 1. 

567. Midr. Tanh., Wa'era, sec. 5, ed. B. ; Midr. Tehillim, ch. 17, 
sec. 13, ed. B.; Aggadat Bereshit, ch. 23, p. 47; ch. 68, p. 134; Midr. 
ha-Gadol, Wayishlah, col. 534; cf. Otiyyot d'R, Akiba, version 2, 
p. 18b. 

568. Cf. Midr. Gen. R., ch. 12, sec. 6 ; ch. 95, sec. 1 ; Midr, Exod. R., 
ch. 15, sec. 22; Midr. Levit. R., ch. 30, sec. 3; Midr. Numb. R., ch. 13, 
sec. 12; ch. 23, sec. 4; Midr. Tanh., Bereshit, sec. 18, ed. B.; Hayye 
Sarah, sec. 3, ed. W. ; Wayiggash, sec. 8, ed. W. ; sec. 9, ed. B. ; Mezora, 
sec. 7, ed. B. ; Masse'e, sec. 3, ed. W. ; Aggadat Bereshit, ch. 79, p. 151 ; 
Midr. Lekah Tob, Bereshit, p. 9b; Midr. ha-Gadol, Bereshit, col. 
65-66; Noah, col. 156-157; Pirke d'R. Eliezer, chapters 45 and 51. 

569. Is. 65, 17; Midr. Aggadah to the Pentateuch, Pekude, p. 190; 
Midr. Wayosha, ch. 22, pp. 31-33; cf. Midr. Exod. R., ch. 15 sec, 21 ; 
Midr. Eccles. R., ch. 3, to verse 15, sec. 1 ; Midr. Tanh., Bereshit, 
sec. 20, ed. B.; Nizzabim, sec. 4, ed. W.; Midr. Tehillim, ch. 104, sec. 
24, ed. B. ; Wertheimer, Ozar Midrashim, p. 46. 

570. Kallah R., at end of ch. 8. 

571. Midr. ha-Gadol, Shemot, p. 29; Otiyyot d'R. Akiba, version 2, 
pp. 11a and 15b; cf. Midr. Deutr. R., ch. 11, begin, of sec. 10; Ag- 
gadat Bereshit, ch. 23, p. 47. 

572. Midr. ha-Gadol, Bereshit, col. 65. 

573. IV Ezra, ch. 6, pp, 576-577. 

574. Ibid., ch. 7, p. 590. 

575. Cf. Mark 4, 11 ; Luke 17, 20-21 ; John 3, 5. 

576. Cf. Luke 10, 23-24; Mark 9, 1 ; 12, 34. 

577. Cf. Luke 8, 1 ; 11, 20; Acts 14, 22. 

578. I Corinthians 15, 50. 

579. Cf. also, I Corinthians 6, 9-10. 

580. Singer's Daily Prayer Book, Morning Service, pp. 76-77. 

581. Midr, Esther R., ch. 1, sec. 13 ; cf. Sifre Behaaloteka, sec. 78, 
p. 20b ; Sifre Zuta, p. 57 ; Abot d'R. Nathan, version 2, ch. 45, p. 63a 
Midr. Numb. R., ch. 14, sec. 13; Aggadat Bereshit, ch. 83, p. 160 
Midr. Tehillim, ch. 5, sec. 4, ed. B. ; ch. 57, sec. 3; ch. 75, sec. 5 
ch. 76, sec. 3; Midr. Samuel, ch. 19, pp. 51b, 52b; Midr, Mishle, at end 
of ch. 19, pp. 43b-44a ; Midr. ha-Gadol, Beshallah, p. 177. 




156 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



582. Aggadat Bereshit, end of ch. 72, p. 141 ; if Midr. Levit R., 
ch. 2, sec. 2; Midr. Tehillim, ch. 92, sec. 10, ed. B.; Midr. Samuel, 
ch. 19, p. 30a; We-Hizhir, Tezawweh, p. lOOa-b. 

583. Midr. Samuel, ch. 19, p. 31a. 

584. Midr. Tehillim, ch. 18, sec, 36, ed. B. 

585. Zeph. 3, 9; Midr. Gen. R., ch. 88, sec. 7. 

586. Berakot 9b; 58a; Yerush. Nazir, ch. 7, p. 56a. 

587. Cf. Selihot for the Day preceding New Year, p. 266 ; Midr. 
ha-Gadol, Bereshit, col. 130. 

588. The Psalms of Solomon, ch. 17, pp. 649-651. 

589. Cf. Sifre, Beha'aloteka, sec. 92, p. 25b; Talmud, Sanh. 92a; 
Midr. Exod. R., ch. 5, sec. 12, ed. Wilna; Midr. Tanh., Wayiggash, 
sec. 7, ed. W. ; Shemot, sec. 26, ed. B. 

590. Mekil. d'R. Shimeon, Beshallah, p. 70; Sifre, Wa'ethanan, 
sec. 31, p. 73a; Midr. Tanh., Wayishlah, sec. 30, ed. B.; Midr. ha- 
Gadol, Beshallah, p. 167. 

591. Is. 33, 22; Midr. Deutr. R., ch. 5, sec. 11. 

592. Midr. Tehillim, ch. 98, sec. 2, ed. B. ; ch. 147, sec. 2. 

593. Is. 2, 17; Mekil. d'R. Shimeon, Beshallah, pp. 57-58; Talmud, 
Sanh. 97a-b; Midr. Gen. R., ch. 77, sec. 1; Teshubot Ha-Geonim, Asaf, 
p. 245; Selihot for the Day preceding Rosh ha-Shanah, pp. 267-271. 

594. Cf. Midr, Numb. R, ch. 14, sec. 3. 

595. Midr. Tanh., Shofetim, sec. 8, ed. B. 

596. Midr. Tehillim, ch, 48, sec. 2, ed. B. 

597. Talmud, Pesahim 50a. 

598. Is. 64, 3 ; Midr. Tanh,, Bereshit, sec. 1, ed. W. 

599. Midr. Esther R., ch. 1, sec. 4. 

600. Singer's Daily Prayer Book, Service for New Year, pp. 239-241 

601. Singer's Daily Prayer Book, The Burial Service, p. 321. 




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160 



THE JEWISH UTOPIA 



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